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Correction published on 16 November 2021, see Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12634.
Article

Multi-Scale Minero-Chemical Analysis of Biomass Ashes: A Key to Evaluating Their Dangers vs. Benefits

1
Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia, 06121 Perugia, Italy
2
UOC PSAL, AUSL Umbria 1, 06127 Perugia, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Perugia, 06121 Perugia, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Giurisprudenza, Università Telematica Pegaso, 80132 Napoli, Italy
5
Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi di Perugia, 06121 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Petronela Nechita, Rodica-Mihaela Dinicǎ and Bianca Furdui
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6052; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116052
Received: 7 May 2021 / Revised: 23 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021 / Corrected: 16 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Biomass Waste Valorization)
A multi-methodic analysis was performed on five samples of fly ashes coming from different biomasses. The aim of the study was to evaluate their possible re-use and their dangerousness to people and the environment. Optical granulometric analyses indicated that the average diameter of the studied fly ashes was around 20 µm, whereas only ~1 vol% had diameters lower that 2.5 µm. The chemical composition, investigated with electron probe microanalysis, indicated that all the samples had a composition in which Ca was prevalent, followed by Si and Al. Large contents of K and P were observed in some samples, whereas the amount of potentially toxic elements was always below the Italian law thresholds. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were completely absent in all the samples coming from combustion plants, whereas they were present in the fly ashes from the gasification center. Quantitative mineralogical content, determined by Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data, indicated that all the samples had high amorphous content, likely enriched in Ca, and several K and P minerals, such as sylvite and apatite. The results obtained from the chemo-mineralogical study performed make it possible to point out that biomass fly ashes could be interesting materials (1) for amendments in clayey soils, as a substitution for lime, to stimulate pozzolanic reactions and improve their geotechnical properties, thus, on the one hand, avoiding the need to mine raw materials and, on the other hand, re-cycling waste; and (2) as agricultural fertilizers made by a new and ecological source of K and P. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; fly ashes; X-ray diffraction; chemical analysis; multi-methodic analysis biomass; fly ashes; X-ray diffraction; chemical analysis; multi-methodic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Comodi, P.; Zucchini, A.; Susta, U.; Cambi, C.; Vivani, R.; Cavalaglio, G.; Cotana, F. Multi-Scale Minero-Chemical Analysis of Biomass Ashes: A Key to Evaluating Their Dangers vs. Benefits. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6052. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116052

AMA Style

Comodi P, Zucchini A, Susta U, Cambi C, Vivani R, Cavalaglio G, Cotana F. Multi-Scale Minero-Chemical Analysis of Biomass Ashes: A Key to Evaluating Their Dangers vs. Benefits. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):6052. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116052

Chicago/Turabian Style

Comodi, Paola, Azzurra Zucchini, Umberto Susta, Costanza Cambi, Riccardo Vivani, Gianluca Cavalaglio, and Franco Cotana. 2021. "Multi-Scale Minero-Chemical Analysis of Biomass Ashes: A Key to Evaluating Their Dangers vs. Benefits" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 6052. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116052

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