- How might the coronavirus pandemic and its aftermath ultimately affect the behavior of the cultural and creative ecosystems in medium-sized cities?
- How might the pandemic alter cultural and creative specializations in their ecosystems?
- What expectations does the pandemic raise in ecosystems in terms of functional clustering?
- In the short term, the pandemic will have effects that are differentiated according to sectors and cities.
- In the medium term, the cultural and creative ecosystems of medium-sized cities will maintain their characteristic specializations, which might result in risks or opportunities, depending on the particular specialization.
- In the long term, effects will tend toward the consolidation of more structured and inclusive cultural ecosystems.
2. Theoretical Framework and Background Information
2.1. The Nature of Cultural and Creative Ecosystems in Medium-Sized Cities and Their Attributes of Specialization and Clustering
2.2. Considerations on the Impact of Crises (Financial and Health) on Cultural and Creative Ecosystems
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. The Cultural and Creative Ecosystems: Cities, Sectors, and Data for Analysis
3.2. Methods for Analysis of the Dynamism, Specialization, and Clustering of Ecosystems during the Financial Crisis
3.3. Indexes to Establish the Exposure of Cultural Ecosystems to the Impact of the Pandemic
- The index of employment intensity in cultural sectors is based on the score achieved by the cities in Indicator 10 of the CCCM,“‘jobs in arts, culture, and entertainment”, obtained from the number of jobs in arts, culture, and entertainment-related activities including in performing arts, museums, and libraries (NACE Rev. 2, codes 90 and 91), divided by the total population in 2019, then multiplied by 1000. The source of statistics used is that of ‘Affiliates with employment registration’ from the Social Security Treasury (‘Afiliados en alta laboral’, Tesorería de la Seguridad Social). Next, the intensity of employment is calculated and categorized by relating the resulting scores to the mean and standard deviation of all cities, and by categorizing the resulting intensity as follows : ”very high intensity” if the score of the city is above the value of the standard deviation, ”high intensity” if the score is below the value of the standard deviation but above the value of the mean, ”medium intensity” if the score is below the mean value but above the value of the standard deviation (multiplied by −1), and ”low intensity” if the score is below the value of the standard deviation (multiplied by −1).
- For the index of overnight tourist stays, we begin with the score achieved by the cities in Indicator 6 of the CCCM, ”fourist overnight stays”, obtained from the total annual number of nights that tourists or guests spent in establishments of tourist accommodation (hotels or similar) in the city in 2018, divided by the total population in 2019. The statistical source used here is the National Statistical Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, or INE). Next, the intensity of tourist activity is calculated and categorized, proceeding as indicated in the case of the intensity of cultural employment.
- The index of employment intensity in the media and in sectors related to communication is based on the score of the cities in CCCM Indicator 11, ”jobs in media and communication”, obtained from the number of jobs in media and communication-related activities such as book and music publishing, film and TV production (NACE Rev. 2, 58–60 and 62–63), divided by the total 2019 population, and then multiplied by 1000. The source and the categorization criteria are those indicated for the cultural employment intensity index.
- The index of employment intensity in other creative sectors is based on the score of the cities in Indicator 12 of the CCCM, obtained from the “number of jobs in professional, scientific and technical, administrative and support service activities such as architecture, advertising, design, and photographic activities” (NACE Rev. 2, 69–74), divided by the total 2019 population, and then multiplied by 1000. The source and the categorization criteria are those already indicated for the two preceding employment intensity indicators.
- The index of accessibility to the local cultural supply synthesizes the score achieved by the cities in the cultural venues and facilities dimension (itself an integration of diverse expressive indicators of the cultural supply) and in Indicator 27 of the CCCM, “potential road accessibility”, which assesses the population accessible by road within 90 min travel time, as a share of the population within a 120 km radius. Each of the components of the new index has been categorized as explained for the intensity indexes (that is, by relating the individual scores of the cities with the mean and the standard deviation). In this final typology, the following three categories have been established: “very high” for cities included in the high category of cultural venues and facilities and for potential road accessibility; “high” for cities included in the high category in cultural venues and facilities, and medium in terms of potential road accessibility; and “medium high” for medium-category cities according to cultural venues and facilities with high and medium status according to road accessibility.
4. Impact of the Coronavirus Pandemic on the Dynamics, Specializations, and Clustering of the Ecosystems Studied
4.1. The Asymmetric Behavior of Ecosystems, and Its Significance
4.1.1. Diversity in Growth during the Financial Crisis
4.1.2. The Asymmetric Behavior of Ecosystems during the Pandemic
4.2. The Specializations of Ecosystems and Their Effects
4.2.1. Variations in Specialization during the Financial Crisis
4.2.2. Maintenance of the Distinctive Cultural and Creative Specializations of Ecosystems during the Post-Pandemic Scenario
4.3. Toward Structural Change in Ecosystems
4.3.1. The Decrease in Intersectoral Co-Locations during the Financial Crisis
4.3.2. Toward More Structured, Dense, and Inclusive Ecosystems
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|Characteristic (Source)||Categories||Number of Cities||%|
|Income per inhabitant (2)||<€10,000||33||40.7|
|Unemployment level (4)||<10%||16||19.7|
|Rank (provincial capital)||NO||66||81.4|
|Code||NACE Classification Activities|
|18||Printing and reproduction of recorded media|
|59||Motion picture, video and television program production, sound recording, and music publishing activities|
|60||Programing and broadcasting activities|
|62||Computer programing, consultancy and related activities|
|73||Advertising and market research|
|74||Other professional, scientific and technical activities, including photographic activities|
|90||Creative, arts, and entertainment activities|
|91||Libraries, archives, museums, and other cultural activities|
|Code||NACE Classification Activities||Average||Typical |
|Coefficient of |
|18||Printing and reproduction of recorded media||122.9||92.96||151.7||139.04||1.23||1.5|
|59||Motion picture, video and television program production, sound recording and music publishing activities||66.9||56.88||116.9||111.79||1.75||1.97|
|60||Programing and broadcasting activities||40.4||63.22||47.5||229.41||1.18||3.63|
|62||Computer programing, consultancy and related activities||60.3||154.83||175.5||649.85||2.91||4.2|
|73||Advertising and market research||260.9||220.24||586.5||493.05||2.25||2.24|
|74||Other professional, scientific, and technical activities, including photographic activities||141.6||132.48||172.7||231.66||1.22||1.75|
|90||Creative, arts, and entertainment activities||60.1||39.26||61.1||56.16||1.02||1.43|
|91||Libraries, archives, museums, and other cultural activities||19.3||26.86||28.8||37.83||1.49||1.41|
|All of the creative and cultural sectors considered||911.2||853.91||1192||1350.12||1.3||1.58|
|All economic sectors||23,617.1||28,615.62||11,618.3||14,797.48||0.5||0.52|
|Correlated Sectors||All Cities||Metropolitan||Non-Metropolitan|
|Sector||Municipality Type||Firms (Number)||Jobs (Number)||Economic Profitability||Average Size Per Firm, According to|
|Operating Income |
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