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Development of the Circular Bioeconomy: Drivers and Indicators

Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy Group, Wageningen University, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands
Royal Netherlands Standardization Institute, 2623 AX Delft, The Netherlands
Statistics Netherlands, 2492 JP The Hague, The Netherlands
Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences, 165 00 Prague-Suchdol, Czech Republic
European Forest Institute, 80100 Joensuu, Finland
Wageningen Economic Research, Wageningen University and Research, 2595 BM The Hague, The Netherlands
Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 41092 Seville, Spain
nova-Institute GmbH, 50354 Hürth, Germany
TUM School of Life Sciences, Production and Resource Economics, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 413;
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 29 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
The EU’s 2018 Bioeconomy Strategy Update and the European Green Deal recently confirmed that the bioeconomy is high on the political agenda in Europe. Here, we propose a conceptual analysis framework for quantifying and analyzing the development of the EU bioeconomy. The bioeconomy has several related concepts (e.g., bio-based economy, green economy, and circular economy) and there are clear synergies between these concepts, especially between the bioeconomy and circular economy concepts. Analyzing the driving factors provides important information for monitoring activities. We first derive the scope of the bioeconomy framework in terms of bioeconomy sectors and products to be involved, the needed geographical coverage and resolution, and time period. Furthermore, we outline a set of indicators linked to the objectives of the EU’s bioeconomy strategy. In our framework, measuring developments will, in particular, focus on the bio-based sectors within the bioeconomy as biomass and food production is already monitored. The selected indicators commit to the EU Bioeconomy Strategy objectives and conform with findings from previous studies and stakeholder consultation. Additionally, several new indicators have been suggested and they are related to measuring the impact of changes in supply, demand drivers, resource availability, and policies on sustainability goals. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioeconomy; monitoring; indicators bioeconomy; monitoring; indicators
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kardung, M.; Cingiz, K.; Costenoble, O.; Delahaye, R.; Heijman, W.; Lovrić, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; M’Barek, R.; van Meijl, H.; Piotrowski, S.; Ronzon, T.; Sauer, J.; Verhoog, D.; Verkerk, P.J.; Vrachioli, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zhu, B.X. Development of the Circular Bioeconomy: Drivers and Indicators. Sustainability 2021, 13, 413.

AMA Style

Kardung M, Cingiz K, Costenoble O, Delahaye R, Heijman W, Lovrić M, van Leeuwen M, M’Barek R, van Meijl H, Piotrowski S, Ronzon T, Sauer J, Verhoog D, Verkerk PJ, Vrachioli M, Wesseler JHH, Zhu BX. Development of the Circular Bioeconomy: Drivers and Indicators. Sustainability. 2021; 13(1):413.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kardung, Maximilian, Kutay Cingiz, Ortwin Costenoble, Roel Delahaye, Wim Heijman, Marko Lovrić, Myrna van Leeuwen, Robert M’Barek, Hans van Meijl, Stephan Piotrowski, Tévécia Ronzon, Johannes Sauer, David Verhoog, Pieter J. Verkerk, Maria Vrachioli, Justus H.H. Wesseler, and Benz X. Zhu. 2021. "Development of the Circular Bioeconomy: Drivers and Indicators" Sustainability 13, no. 1: 413.

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