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Open AccessArticle

A Secured Privacy-Preserving Multi-Level Blockchain Framework for Cluster Based VANET

1
Department of Computer Engineering, Sakarya University, Serdivan 54050, Sakarya, Turkey
2
School of Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA 6027, Australia
3
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul 34315, Turkey
4
Centre for Cyber Security Research and Innovation (CSRI), School of IT, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010400
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 29 December 2020 / Accepted: 30 December 2020 / Published: 4 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Networked Intelligent Systems for a Sustainable Future)
Existing research shows that Cluster-based Medium Access Control (CB-MAC) protocols perform well in controlling and managing Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET), but requires ensuring improved security and privacy preserving authentication mechanism. To this end, we propose a multi-level blockchain-based privacy-preserving authentication protocol. The paper thoroughly explains the formation of the authentication centers, vehicles registration, and key generation processes. In the proposed architecture, a global authentication center (GAC) is responsible for storing all vehicle information, while Local Authentication Center (LAC) maintains a blockchain to enable quick handover between internal clusters of vehicle. We also propose a modified control packet format of IEEE 802.11 standards to remove the shortcomings of the traditional MAC protocols. Moreover, cluster formation, membership and cluster-head selection, and merging and leaving processes are implemented while considering the safety and non-safety message transmission to increase the performance. All blockchain communication is performed using high speed 5G internet while encrypted information is transmitted while using the RSA-1024 digital signature algorithm for improved security, integrity, and confidentiality. Our proof-of-concept implements the authentication schema while considering multiple virtual machines. With detailed experiments, we show that the proposed method is more efficient in terms of time and storage when compared to the existing methods. Besides, numerical analysis shows that the proposed transmission protocols outperform traditional MAC and benchmark methods in terms of throughput, delay, and packet dropping rate. View Full-Text
Keywords: data security; Vehicular Ad hoc Networks; digital signatures; distributed storage; intelligent vehicles; wireless communication; emergency vehicle management data security; Vehicular Ad hoc Networks; digital signatures; distributed storage; intelligent vehicles; wireless communication; emergency vehicle management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akhter, A.F.M.S.; Ahmed, M.; Shah, A.F.M.S.; Anwar, A.; Zengin, A. A Secured Privacy-Preserving Multi-Level Blockchain Framework for Cluster Based VANET. Sustainability 2021, 13, 400. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010400

AMA Style

Akhter AFMS, Ahmed M, Shah AFMS, Anwar A, Zengin A. A Secured Privacy-Preserving Multi-Level Blockchain Framework for Cluster Based VANET. Sustainability. 2021; 13(1):400. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010400

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akhter, A. F.M.S.; Ahmed, Mohiuddin; Shah, A. F.M.S.; Anwar, Adnan; Zengin, Ahmet. 2021. "A Secured Privacy-Preserving Multi-Level Blockchain Framework for Cluster Based VANET" Sustainability 13, no. 1: 400. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010400

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