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Article

Toward a New Way for the Valorization of Miscanthus Biomass Produced on Metal-Contaminated Soils Part 2: Miscanthus-Based Biosourced Catalyst: Design, Preparation, and Catalytic Efficiency in the Synthesis of Moclobemide

by 1,2,3, 3,4,5 and 1,2,*
1
Laboratoire de Génie Civil et géo-Environnement (LGCgE)-EA 4515, Université Lille, 59000 Lille, France
2
Environment Team, Health & Environment Department, Junia, 59000 Lille, France
3
Sustainable Chemistry Team, Laboratory of Sustainable Chemistry and Health, Health & Environment Department, Junia, 59000 Lille, France
4
CHU Lille, INSERM-U1167—RID-AGE—Facteurs de Risque et Déterminants Moléculaires des Maladies Liées au Vieillissement, Institut Paster de Lille, Université de Lille, 59000 Lille, France
5
Faculty of Chemistry, ‘Alexandru Ioan Cuza’ University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010034
Received: 4 December 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 18 December 2020 / Published: 22 December 2020
The conception of two biosourced catalysts (biocatalysts) using stems of miscanthus from the first part of this study are described herein. The temperature and the process used to extract metals from plant as mixture of Lewis acids were investigated in detail and proved to be essential in the design of the biosourced catalysts and their catalytic efficiency. One part of the crude mixture of Lewis acids extracted from the aerial parts of miscanthus plants was used without further treatment as a homogeneous biocatalyst (M1), and the other part was supported on montmorillonite K10 to provide a heterogeneous biocatalyst (MM1). M1 and MM1 were next tested in the synthesis of moclobemide (main ingredient of a drug used to treat depression) and led to excellent yield. Additional comparative experiments with different commercial metallic salts (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, CuCl2, ZnCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, MnCl2, and AlCl3) and their mixtures were carried out and underlined the importance of the multimetallic synergy on catalytic activity. Finally, a comparison of this new synthetic method assisted by the biosourced catalyst with the previously described procedures to access moclobemide was realized by calculating their green chemistry metrics. This study revealed that the use of the biosourced catalyst led to one of the greenest synthetic methods described today to produce moclobemide. View Full-Text
Keywords: miscanthus; catalyst; moclobemide; green chemistry; metric miscanthus; catalyst; moclobemide; green chemistry; metric
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guérin, T.; Ghinet, A.; Waterlot, C. Toward a New Way for the Valorization of Miscanthus Biomass Produced on Metal-Contaminated Soils Part 2: Miscanthus-Based Biosourced Catalyst: Design, Preparation, and Catalytic Efficiency in the Synthesis of Moclobemide. Sustainability 2021, 13, 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010034

AMA Style

Guérin T, Ghinet A, Waterlot C. Toward a New Way for the Valorization of Miscanthus Biomass Produced on Metal-Contaminated Soils Part 2: Miscanthus-Based Biosourced Catalyst: Design, Preparation, and Catalytic Efficiency in the Synthesis of Moclobemide. Sustainability. 2021; 13(1):34. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010034

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guérin, Théo, Alina Ghinet, and Christophe Waterlot. 2021. "Toward a New Way for the Valorization of Miscanthus Biomass Produced on Metal-Contaminated Soils Part 2: Miscanthus-Based Biosourced Catalyst: Design, Preparation, and Catalytic Efficiency in the Synthesis of Moclobemide" Sustainability 13, no. 1: 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010034

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