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Article

Participatory Approach to Gap Analysis between Policy and Practice Regarding Air Pollution in Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

1
Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto Uji 611-0011, Japan
2
Korea Disaster Relief Association, Seoul 04088, Korea
3
Environment and Natural Resources, University of Iceland, 102 Reykjavik, Iceland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083309
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 6 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 18 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning Resilient Community: Public Participation and Governance)
Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, suffers from severe air pollution during the long winter months, and its air pollution levels are among the highest in the world. Residents in the ger areas of Ulaanbaatar are unable to take advantage of the laws and policy regulations to reduce air pollution despite years of efforts to address this issue by international and local organizations including the government of Mongolia (GoM). Important challenges and barriers that have limited the success of various governmental policies that tackle air pollution problems were identified through participatory approaches. In order to do this, personal interviews were conducted with various stakeholders such as officials from central and local governments, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations, and academia. Moreover, a workshop was conducted to elucidate the views of ger area community members in Ulaanbaatar. Based on the results of these interviews and workshop, the gaps between the policy approaches of the government, the actual conditions, and the desired situations of the residents to improve air quality in Ulaanbaatar were analyzed. The large gaps that were identified between the national and local perspectives on air pollution issues demonstrated that the reduction of air pollution in Ulaanbaatar requires solving fundamental and complex problems based on a better understanding of the specific conditions and needs of the residents of the ger areas. Moreover, active participation and discussion of the residents at the workshop indicated that community-based approaches could be applied in the cultural context of Mongolia with promising results in finding solutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: participatory approach; participatory workshop; air pollution; sustainable local decision-making participatory approach; participatory workshop; air pollution; sustainable local decision-making
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koo, B.; Na, J.-I.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Cruz, A.M. Participatory Approach to Gap Analysis between Policy and Practice Regarding Air Pollution in Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3309. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083309

AMA Style

Koo B, Na J-I, Thorsteinsson T, Cruz AM. Participatory Approach to Gap Analysis between Policy and Practice Regarding Air Pollution in Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Sustainability. 2020; 12(8):3309. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koo, Bonjun, Jong-Il Na, Throstur Thorsteinsson, and Ana M. Cruz 2020. "Participatory Approach to Gap Analysis between Policy and Practice Regarding Air Pollution in Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia" Sustainability 12, no. 8: 3309. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083309

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