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Open AccessArticle

Robust Proof of Stake: A New Consensus Protocol for Sustainable Blockchain Systems

by 1, 1 and 1,2,*
1
School of Economics and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
2
Key Laboratory of Big Data Mining and Knowledge Management, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072824
Received: 1 March 2020 / Revised: 22 March 2020 / Accepted: 31 March 2020 / Published: 2 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
In the digital economy era, the development of a distributed robust economy system has become increasingly important. The blockchain technology can be used to build such a system, but current mainstream consensus protocols are vulnerable to attack, making blockchain systems unsustainable. In this paper, we propose a new Robust Proof of Stake (RPoS) consensus protocol, which uses the amount of coins to select miners and limits the maximum value of the coin age to effectively avoid coin age accumulation attack and Nothing-at-Stake ([email protected]) attack. Under a comparison framework, we show that the RPoS equals or outperforms Proof of Work (PoW) protocol and Proof of Stake (PoS) protocol in three dimensions: energy consumption, robustness, and transaction processing speed. To compare the three consensus protocols in terms of trade efficiency, we built an agent-based model and find that RPoS protocol has greater or similar trade request-satisfied ratio than PoW and PoS. Hence, we suggest that RPoS is very suitable for building a robust digital economy distributed system. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed digital economy system; blockchain; robust; consensus protocol; agent-based model distributed digital economy system; blockchain; robust; consensus protocol; agent-based model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, A.; Wei, X.; He, Z. Robust Proof of Stake: A New Consensus Protocol for Sustainable Blockchain Systems. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2824. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072824

AMA Style

Li A, Wei X, He Z. Robust Proof of Stake: A New Consensus Protocol for Sustainable Blockchain Systems. Sustainability. 2020; 12(7):2824. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072824

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Aiya; Wei, Xianhua; He, Zhou. 2020. "Robust Proof of Stake: A New Consensus Protocol for Sustainable Blockchain Systems" Sustainability 12, no. 7: 2824. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072824

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