Next Article in Journal
Is Parking in Europe Ready for Dynamic Pricing? A Reality Check for the Private Sector
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Validation of a Knowledge Management Questionnaire for Hospitals and Other Healthcare Organizations
Open AccessArticle

Impacts of Rural Women’s Traditional Economic Activities on Household Economy: Changing Economic Contributions through Empowered Women in Rural Pakistan

1
School of Public Affairs, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Department of Gender Studies, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94132, USA
3
The College of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwanjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747, Korea
4
Department of Anthropology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2731; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072731
Received: 21 January 2020 / Revised: 3 March 2020 / Accepted: 22 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Gender Equality in Rural Areas of Developing Countries)
In Pakistan, as in other developing countries, rural women make ample contributions to the economy through vital productive and reproductive roles. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of women’s traditional economic activities that supplement their household economy directly through earning income and indirectly through savings expenditure and to assess the factors that influence their productivity performance. For this purpose, six rural areas from Khyber, which is located in the Pukhtoonkhwah province, were chosen to represent the south, north, and the central plain regions. About 480 women responded out of 600, which were selected using a snowball sampling technique from the entire three regions. The data was collected by conducting face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs). About 68.33% respondents were illiterate, 47.71% were 31 to 40 years old, and 47.92% lived in a joint family system. Due to the strict Purdah (veil) culture, about 71.88% of the women’s economic activities were confined indoors, such as stitching; embroidery; basket and candle making; preparing pickles, jams, and squash; dairy products; apiculture; sericulture; livestock; poultry; nursery raising; and some agriculture-related off-farm activities. It was reported that the major decisions in the household are made by the male members due to the strong patriarchal norms and values. Development projects by the NGOs and the government have played a significant role to provide credit, training, and awareness that has arisen specifically in the north and the south regions. All of the women were aware of the positive effects of economic independence, but some of them also revealed the negative effects on their physical and psychological health as well as the social ties within the households and communities due to the extensive workload and time issues. The study concluded that many demographic social, cultural, religious, and economic factors negatively influence the women’s productive potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: traditional economic activities; obstacles and challenges; rural women’s entrepreneurship; women’s empowerment; gender equity traditional economic activities; obstacles and challenges; rural women’s entrepreneurship; women’s empowerment; gender equity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Jabeen, S.; Haq, S.; Jameel, A.; Hussain, A.; Asif, M.; Hwang, J.; Jabeen, A. Impacts of Rural Women’s Traditional Economic Activities on Household Economy: Changing Economic Contributions through Empowered Women in Rural Pakistan. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2731.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop