Next Article in Journal
Identifying the Types and Impact of Service Provider’s Responses to Online Negative Reviews in the Sharing Economy: Evidence from B&Bs in China
Previous Article in Journal
Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Gameplay-Scale for Educative Video Games in Spanish Children
 
 
Article

Integrated Health Interventions for Improved Livelihoods: A Case Study in Ethiopia

1
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), P.O.Box 30772-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
2
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), P.O.Box 5689 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
3
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P.O.Box 30709-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
4
George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062284
Received: 3 January 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 14 March 2020
Smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face multifaceted and co-existing risks, such as human and animal diseases and pests. Even though smallholder farmers often experience these challenges simultaneously, interventions to address these challenges are often implemented in a piecemeal fashion. However, managing agricultural production constraints without alleviating human and livestock health burdens might not generate significant and sustained benefits to achieve the desired development outcome (e.g., reducing hunger, malnutrition, and poverty). As such, building farmers’ resilience and adaptive capacity to co-existing production constraints and health burdens may require an integrated and holistic approach. Understanding the potential benefits of an integrated approach would provide critical information, for example, for revisiting the extension systems and for designing pro-poor holistically integrated interventions to tackle interrelated challenges facing smallholder farmers. In this paper, we examined the economic benefits of integrated human–plant–animal health interventions aimed at controlling malaria, stemborer infestations of crops, and trypanosomiasis, along with beekeeping as a livelihood diversification option in rural Ethiopia. We developed a whole-farm multiperiod mathematical linear programming model to examine the economic consequences of the interventions. Our results suggest that relaxing livelihoods and the human–plant–animal health constraints that farmers face has the potential to at least double income. The results further show that exploiting the potential synergies among interventions can generate higher economic benefits. The annual income from the combined interventions is 35% higher than the sum of the income gains from each intervention alone. Our results support an integrated approach to achieve holistic outcomes in areas where these development constraints co-exist. View Full-Text
Keywords: co-existing agricultural risks; integrated health interventions; economic benefits; multiperiod linear programming; Ethiopia co-existing agricultural risks; integrated health interventions; economic benefits; multiperiod linear programming; Ethiopia
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kassie, M.; Abro, Z.; Wossen, T.; T. Ledermann, S.; Diiro, G.; Ballo, S.; Belayhun, L. Integrated Health Interventions for Improved Livelihoods: A Case Study in Ethiopia. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2284. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062284

AMA Style

Kassie M, Abro Z, Wossen T, T. Ledermann S, Diiro G, Ballo S, Belayhun L. Integrated Health Interventions for Improved Livelihoods: A Case Study in Ethiopia. Sustainability. 2020; 12(6):2284. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062284

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kassie, Menale, Zewdu Abro, Tesfamicheal Wossen, Samuel T. Ledermann, Gracious Diiro, Shifa Ballo, and Lulseged Belayhun. 2020. "Integrated Health Interventions for Improved Livelihoods: A Case Study in Ethiopia" Sustainability 12, no. 6: 2284. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062284

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop