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Article

A Grid-Based Spatial Analysis for Detecting Supply–Demand Gaps of Public Transports: A Case Study of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

1
School of Engineering and Technology, Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
2
Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8568, Japan
3
School of Environment, Resources and Development, Department of Development and Sustainability, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10382; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410382
Received: 14 September 2020 / Revised: 30 November 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
Public transport service has been promoted to reduce the problems of traffic congestion and environmental impacts due to car dependency. Several public transportation modes are available in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) such as buses, heavy rails, vans, boats, taxis, and trains while in some areas have fewer modes of public transport available. The disparity of public transport service negatively impacts social equity. This study aims to identify the gaps between public transport supply and demand and to demonstrate introduced indicators to assess the public transport performance incorporating transport capacity and equilibrium access aspects. Supply index was used to evaluate the level of service, and the demand index was applied to estimate travel needs. Furthermore, the Lorenz curves and the Gini coefficients were used to measure the equity of public transport. The results highlight that more than half of the BMR population is living in low-supply high-demand areas for public transportation. Moreover, the equitable access analysis has identified that the high-income population has better access to public transport than the low-income population. The results suggest that public transport gaps and equity indicate the inclusiveness of public transportation, as well as to the areas where to improve the public transport service. Thus, the methodology used in this study can be applied to another city or region similar to BMR. View Full-Text
Keywords: transportation performance index; public transport; public transport accessibility; supply–demand gaps; transport equity; geospatial analysis; Bangkok Metropolitan Region transportation performance index; public transport; public transport accessibility; supply–demand gaps; transport equity; geospatial analysis; Bangkok Metropolitan Region
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peungnumsai, A.; Miyazaki, H.; Witayangkurn, A.; Kim, S.M. A Grid-Based Spatial Analysis for Detecting Supply–Demand Gaps of Public Transports: A Case Study of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. Sustainability 2020, 12, 10382. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410382

AMA Style

Peungnumsai A, Miyazaki H, Witayangkurn A, Kim SM. A Grid-Based Spatial Analysis for Detecting Supply–Demand Gaps of Public Transports: A Case Study of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. Sustainability. 2020; 12(24):10382. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410382

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peungnumsai, Apantri, Hiroyuki Miyazaki, Apichon Witayangkurn, and Sohee M. Kim 2020. "A Grid-Based Spatial Analysis for Detecting Supply–Demand Gaps of Public Transports: A Case Study of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region" Sustainability 12, no. 24: 10382. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410382

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