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Open AccessArticle

Artificial Neural Network Optimized with a Genetic Algorithm for Seasonal Groundwater Table Depth Prediction in Uttar Pradesh, India

1
Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab, India
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Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar 263145, Uttarakhand, India
3
Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bathinda 151001, Punjab, India
4
CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 8932; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218932
Received: 8 September 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 24 October 2020 / Published: 27 October 2020
Accurate information about groundwater level prediction is crucial for effective planning and management of groundwater resources. In the present study, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), optimized with a Genetic Algorithm (GA-ANN), was employed for seasonal groundwater table depth (GWTD) prediction in the area between the Ganga and Hindon rivers located in Uttar Pradesh State, India. A total of 18 models for both seasons (nine for the pre-monsoon and nine for the post-monsoon) have been formulated by using groundwater recharge (GWR), groundwater discharge (GWD), and previous groundwater level data from a 21-year period (1994–2014). The hybrid GA-ANN models’ predictive ability was evaluated against the traditional GA models based on statistical indicators and visual inspection. The results appraisal indicates that the hybrid GA-ANN models outperformed the GA models for predicting the seasonal GWTD in the study region. Overall, the hybrid GA-ANN-8 model with an 8-9-1 structure (i.e., 8: inputs, 9: neurons in the hidden layer, and 1: output) was nominated optimal for predicting the GWTD during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Additionally, it was noted that the maximum number of input variables in the hybrid GA-ANN approach improved the prediction accuracy. In conclusion, the proposed hybrid GA-ANN model’s findings could be readily transferable or implemented in other parts of the world, specifically those with similar geology and hydrogeology conditions for sustainable planning and groundwater resources management. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial intelligence; Ganga; groundwater; Hindon; statistical indicators; Uttar Pradesh artificial intelligence; Ganga; groundwater; Hindon; statistical indicators; Uttar Pradesh
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pandey, K.; Kumar, S.; Malik, A.; Kuriqi, A. Artificial Neural Network Optimized with a Genetic Algorithm for Seasonal Groundwater Table Depth Prediction in Uttar Pradesh, India. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8932.

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