An Inclusive Approach to Partnerships for the SDGs: Using a Relationship Lens to Explore the Potential for Transformational Collaboration
2. Methodology and Approach
3. Partnerships for the SDGs
4. The Challenge of Defining and Categorizing Partnerships
Business Partnerships; Strategic Alliances; Public-private partnerships; Tri-sector or Cross sector partnerships; WSSD  Multi-stakeholder Partnerships; Mandated partnerships; Enacted Partnerships; Community partnerships; Negotiated partnerships; Local partnerships; Locally led partnerships; Participatory international partnerships; Non-participatory international partnerships; Nascent partnerships; R&D (research and development) partnerships; Production partnerships; Transactional partnerships; Integrative partnerships(p. 5)
- Process-oriented: developing strategies, policies and relationships.
- Project-oriented: focusing on discrete activities linked to core business practices.
- Product-oriented: delivering improvements to products, services and sales.
- Non-profit organizations and businesses.
- Governments and businesses.
- Governments and non-profit organizations.
- Actors from all three sectors.
- Development partnerships working for more effective development at the local level.
- Partnerships to support civil society development.
- Partnerships which leverage a more effective response to complex change situations.
- Partnerships which add quality to the work of all partners.
- Partnerships and alliances for social change.
5. Using a Relationship Lens to Explore the Partnership Landscape
Humanism (authenticity, openness, honesty, fairness, justice, equality, diversity, respect); participation (involvement, participation, voice, responsibility, opportunity, collaboration, democratic principles and practices); choice (options, rights, accountability); development (personal growth, reaching potential, learning, self-actualization) (p. 331).
6. The Personal Dimension in Partnerships
7. Exploring Motivations for Working in Partnerships for the SDGs
- Instrumental vs. integrative motivations—in which instrumental refers to doing something as a means to an end in order to achieve a result or practical goal while integrative pertains to relational connections and a desire to interact with, and become part of, a broader community.
- Extrinsic vs intrinsic motivations—in which extrinsic relates to external mandates for doing something, including the promise of reward(s) or, conversely, to avoid some form of sanction, while intrinsic is about doing something because it is rewarding for its own sake.
8. Deepening Relational Values in Partnerships
Conflicts of Interest
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|Type of Relationship||Examples||References|
|Inter-personal relationships||Lovers, spouses, families, friends, neighbors, colleagues, mentors, etc.||Perel [16,66,67]; Chopra, Arora and Saint ; Detsky and Baerlocher ; Greenfield and Reyes |
|Intra-organizational relationships||Partners in a business; cross-functional teams; virtual teams; collaborative leadership; Industrial relations and Human Resource Management, etc.||Wilson ; Crosby and Bryson ; Cullen et al. ; Ibarra and Hansen ; Johnstone, Ackers and Wilkinson |
(Strategic alliances, joint ventures, etc.)
|Hamel, Doz and Prahalad ; Kanter ; Swientozielskyi ; Todeva and Knoke |
(Country alliances/ agreements around particular themes, between public sector agencies)
|Lewis ; Pearson |
(International–local partnerships, South–South, North–South; North–North)
|Abrahamsen ; Ashman ; Crawford ; Johnson and Wilson |
|University–University||Benneworth and Humphrey ; Taylor |
|Cross-sector relationships||Bi sector|
|Business–Government||Reed and Reed ;|
Selsky and Parker 
|Business–United Nations||Global Compact LEAD Task Force ; Murphy ; Nelson ; Stott ; Utting and Zammit [62,89]|
|Business–Community||Coombe ; Lee ; Loza |
|Government–NGO||Brinkerhoff ; Brinkerhoff ; Gazley ; Gazley and Brudney |
|NGOs-International donors||Brinkerhoff and Brinkerhoff |
|Business–NGO||Austin ; Austin and Seitanidi ; Heap ; Murphy [27,54]; Murphy and Bendell [26,60]; Seitanidi and Crane |
|University–Community||Baker et al. ; Benneworth and Humphrey |
|Business–Government–NGO||Kolk, Van Tulder and Kostwinder ; Nelson ; Seitanidi and Ryan ; Stadtler ; Waddell ; Warner and Sullivan |
|Business–Community–NGO||Kapelus ; Sullivan |
|Multi-stakeholder (multi-actor, multi-party) relationships||A diverse mix of actors and organizations from different parts of society working together in networks, alliances, coalitions, partnerships, including (among others):||Bäckstrand ; Beisheim ; Glasbergen ; Pattberg and Widerberg ; Rein and Stott  United Nations [20,21,46,47,48]; Van den Brande |
|Co-creation/Co-production||Stott ; Voorberg, Bekkers and Tummers |
|Collective impact||Hanleybrown, Kania and Kramer ; Harwood ; Kania and Kramer |
|Innovation ecosystems||Granstrand and Holgersson ; Mattila et al. |
|Multipartite Social Partnerships||Andersen and Mailand |
|Public–Private–People Partnerships||itdUPM ; Ng, Wong and Wong |
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Stott, L.; Murphy, D.F. An Inclusive Approach to Partnerships for the SDGs: Using a Relationship Lens to Explore the Potential for Transformational Collaboration. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7905. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197905
Stott L, Murphy DF. An Inclusive Approach to Partnerships for the SDGs: Using a Relationship Lens to Explore the Potential for Transformational Collaboration. Sustainability. 2020; 12(19):7905. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197905Chicago/Turabian Style
Stott, Leda, and David F. Murphy. 2020. "An Inclusive Approach to Partnerships for the SDGs: Using a Relationship Lens to Explore the Potential for Transformational Collaboration" Sustainability 12, no. 19: 7905. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197905