Next Article in Journal
MapOnLearn: The Use of Maps in Online Learning Systems for Education Sustainability
Next Article in Special Issue
Impact of Movement Control Order (MCO) due to Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) on Food Waste Generation: A Case Study in Klang Valley, Malaysia
Previous Article in Journal
Approaching Bike Hazards via Crowdsourcing of Volunteered Geographic Information
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characteristics and Determinants of Domestic Food Waste: A Representative Diary Study across Germany
Article

How Neighbourhood Food Environments and a Pay-as-You-Throw (PAYT) Waste Program Impact Household Food Waste Disposal in the City of Toronto

1
Human Environments Analysis Laboratory, Department of Geography, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
2
CAREX Canada, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC V6B 5K3, Canada
3
Department of Geography and Planning, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada
4
School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Brescia University College, Western University, London, ON N6G 1H2, Canada
5
Department of Paediatrics, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
6
Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7016; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177016
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 23 August 2020 / Accepted: 24 August 2020 / Published: 28 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Household Food Waste: From an International Perspective)
Household food waste has negative, and largely unnecessary, environmental, social and economic impacts. A better understanding of current household food waste disposal is needed to help develop and implement effective interventions to reduce food wasting. A four-season waste characterization study was undertaken with 200 single-family households across eight neighbourhoods in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The City of Toronto provides residents with a pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) waste program that includes a choice of four garbage cart sizes (Small [S], Medium [M], Large [L], Extra Large [XL]), with increasing annual user fees ($18.00–$411.00 CAD), as well as a green cart (organic waste) and blue cart (recycling). On average, each household disposed 4.22 kg/week of total food waste, 69.90% of which was disposed in the green cart, and disposal increased significantly (p = 0.03) by garbage cart size to L but not XL garbage carts. Of this total, 61.78% consisted of avoidable food waste, annually valued at $630.00–$847.00 CAD/household. Toronto’s PAYT waste program has been effective at diverting food waste into the green cart but not at reducing its generation. Higher median incomes were positively correlated, while higher neighbourhood dwelling and population density were negatively correlated, with total and avoidable food waste disposal. Regression analyses explained 40–67% of the variance in total avoidable food waste disposal. Higher supermarket density and distance to healthier food outlets were associated with more, while dwelling density was related to less, total and avoidable food waste disposal. Distance to fast food restaurants and less healthy food outlet density were both negatively associated with avoidable food waste disposal in the garbage and green cart, respectively. Avoidable food waste reduction interventions could include increasing garbage cart fees, weight-based PAYT, or messaging to households on the monetary value of avoidable food waste, and working with food retailers to improve how households shop for their food. View Full-Text
Keywords: food waste; waste characterization study; pay-as-you-throw (PAYT); neighbourhood food environments; food geography food waste; waste characterization study; pay-as-you-throw (PAYT); neighbourhood food environments; food geography
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

van der Werf, P.; Larsen, K.; Seabrook, J.A.; Gilliland, J. How Neighbourhood Food Environments and a Pay-as-You-Throw (PAYT) Waste Program Impact Household Food Waste Disposal in the City of Toronto. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7016. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177016

AMA Style

van der Werf P, Larsen K, Seabrook JA, Gilliland J. How Neighbourhood Food Environments and a Pay-as-You-Throw (PAYT) Waste Program Impact Household Food Waste Disposal in the City of Toronto. Sustainability. 2020; 12(17):7016. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177016

Chicago/Turabian Style

van der Werf, Paul, Kristian Larsen, Jamie A. Seabrook, and Jason Gilliland. 2020. "How Neighbourhood Food Environments and a Pay-as-You-Throw (PAYT) Waste Program Impact Household Food Waste Disposal in the City of Toronto" Sustainability 12, no. 17: 7016. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177016

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop