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Article

Toward an Integrated Model of Topical, Spatial, and Temporal Scales of Research Inquiry in Park Visitor Use Management

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Department of Community Sustainability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
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Department of Society and Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
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Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
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School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
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Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16801, USA
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Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management and Center for Geospatial Analytics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
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Applied Trails Research, LLC, State College, PA 16803, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6183; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156183
Received: 1 July 2020 / Revised: 28 July 2020 / Accepted: 29 July 2020 / Published: 31 July 2020
Parks and protected areas (PPAs) are facing complex, transboundary, social, and ecological pressures, including those related to visitor use. Effective visitor use management (VUM) in PPAs requires interdisciplinary thinking across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Yet, the majority of this VUM research is short-term and occurs at relatively discrete spatial scales. A few existing frameworks and conceptual models used in VUM encourage thinking across scales. No single, interdisciplinary conceptual model exists, however, despite longstanding recognition of the need for one. This need was highlighted as a research priority by PPA and VUM subject area experts from across the U.S. at a workshop at Clemson University in 2018. This manuscript draws from the discussions at that workshop and addresses this recognized need. We propose and describe a single multi-scalar conceptual model that integrates topical areas in PPA VUM. Thoughtful, multi-scalar research that transcends disciplines is essential to address contemporary issues across VUM topics. The proposed model and the subsequent discussion are meant to serve as a catalyst for VUM researchers to begin considering both spatial and temporal scales in their PPA-based inquiries. View Full-Text
Keywords: protected area; tourism; conservation social science; multi-scalar; scaling up; social-ecological systems; systems management; visitor use management; spatiotemporal; recreation protected area; tourism; conservation social science; multi-scalar; scaling up; social-ecological systems; systems management; visitor use management; spatiotemporal; recreation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perry, E.E.; Thomsen, J.M.; D’Antonio, A.L.; Morse, W.C.; Reigner, N.P.; Leung, Y.-F.; Wimpey, J.; Taff, B.D. Toward an Integrated Model of Topical, Spatial, and Temporal Scales of Research Inquiry in Park Visitor Use Management. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6183. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156183

AMA Style

Perry EE, Thomsen JM, D’Antonio AL, Morse WC, Reigner NP, Leung Y-F, Wimpey J, Taff BD. Toward an Integrated Model of Topical, Spatial, and Temporal Scales of Research Inquiry in Park Visitor Use Management. Sustainability. 2020; 12(15):6183. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perry, Elizabeth E., Jennifer M. Thomsen, Ashley L. D’Antonio, Wayde C. Morse, Nathan P. Reigner, Yu-Fai Leung, Jeremy Wimpey, and B. D. Taff 2020. "Toward an Integrated Model of Topical, Spatial, and Temporal Scales of Research Inquiry in Park Visitor Use Management" Sustainability 12, no. 15: 6183. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156183

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