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Review

Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors—As Mitigation Tools for Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Sustainable Dairy Systems: A Review

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Food Chemistry and Technology Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, P61 C996 Cork, Ireland
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School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, 4 Dublin, Ireland
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Teagasc, Johnstown Castle, Y35 Y521 Co. Wexford, Ireland
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Food Safety Department, Ashtown Food Research Centre, Teagasc, Ashtown, 15 Dublin, Ireland
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School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Gaol Walk, T12 YN60 Cork, Ireland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6018; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156018
Received: 9 June 2020 / Revised: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 21 July 2020 / Published: 27 July 2020
Currently, nitrogen fertilizers are utilized to meet 48% of the total global food demand. The demand for nitrogen fertilizers is expected to grow as global populations continue to rise. The use of nitrogen fertilizers is associated with many negative environmental impacts and is a key source of greenhouse and harmful gas emissions. In recent years, urease and nitrification inhibitors have emerged as mitigation tools that are presently utilized in agriculture to prevent nitrogen losses and reduce greenhouse and harmful gas emissions that are associated with the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers. Both classes of inhibitor work by different mechanisms and have different physiochemical properties. Consequently, each class must be evaluated on its own merits. Although there are many benefits associated with the use of these inhibitors, little is known about their potential to enter the food chain, an event that may pose challenges to food safety. This phenomenon was highlighted when the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide was found as a residual contaminant in milk products in 2013. This comprehensive review aims to discuss the uses of inhibitor technologies in agriculture and their possible impacts on dairy product safety and quality, highlighting areas of concern with regards to the introduction of these inhibitor technologies into the dairy supply chain. Furthermore, this review discusses the benefits and challenges of inhibitor usage with a focus on EU regulations, as well as associated health concerns, chemical behavior, and analytical detection methods for these compounds within milk and environmental matrices. View Full-Text
Keywords: urease inhibitors; nitrification inhibitors; greenhouse gas emissions; dairy sustainability; residual food contaminants; nitrous oxide; ammonia gas urease inhibitors; nitrification inhibitors; greenhouse gas emissions; dairy sustainability; residual food contaminants; nitrous oxide; ammonia gas
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MDPI and ACS Style

Byrne, M.P.; Tobin, J.T.; Forrestal, P.J.; Danaher, M.; Nkwonta, C.G.; Richards, K.; Cummins, E.; Hogan, S.A.; O’Callaghan, T.F. Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors—As Mitigation Tools for Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Sustainable Dairy Systems: A Review. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6018. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156018

AMA Style

Byrne MP, Tobin JT, Forrestal PJ, Danaher M, Nkwonta CG, Richards K, Cummins E, Hogan SA, O’Callaghan TF. Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors—As Mitigation Tools for Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Sustainable Dairy Systems: A Review. Sustainability. 2020; 12(15):6018. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Byrne, Maria P., John T. Tobin, Patrick J. Forrestal, Martin Danaher, Chikere G. Nkwonta, Karl Richards, Enda Cummins, Sean A. Hogan, and Tom F. O’Callaghan 2020. "Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors—As Mitigation Tools for Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Sustainable Dairy Systems: A Review" Sustainability 12, no. 15: 6018. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156018

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