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Article

Improving Energy Poverty Measurement in Southern European Regions through Equivalization of Modeled Energy Costs

1
Alokabide, Technical Department, Portal de Gamarra, 1A—2a planta (Edificio el Boulevard), 01013 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
2
Metsovion Interdisciplinary Research Center, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechneiou Str., Zographos, 15780 Athens, Greece
3
CENSE Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
4
School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechneiou Str., Zographos, 15780 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5721; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145721
Received: 21 June 2020 / Revised: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 16 July 2020
In many European countries, energy poverty is measured on the basis of real energy bills, as theoretical energy costs are hard to calculate. The UK is an exception—the data inputs for the Low Income-High Cost (LIHC) indicator are based on reasonable energy costs, these data are collected through specially designed surveys, often an intensive and costly procedure. Approaches which calculate energy needs are valid when energy bill data are unreliable or where households restrict consumption. In this analysis, energy poverty levels are evaluated for Greece, the municipality of Évora (Portugal), and the Basque Country (Spain): energy bills are modeled based on building energy performance data and other energy uses, and adjusted according to socio-demographic variables. To this end, equivalization weights are calculated using socio-economic data from the aforementioned southern European countries/regions. Data are analyzed to compare measurements with actual versus modeled bills using the Ten-Percent Rule (TPR) and Hidden Energy Poverty (HEP) against twice the median (2M) indicator, enhancing the identification of households with low energy consumption. In conclusion, theoretical energy needs can be combined with socio-demographic data instead of actual energy bills to measure energy poverty in a simplified way, avoiding the problem of targeting households that under consume. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy poverty; modeled energy costs; TPR; HEP; equivalization coefficients; under consumption; Greece; Portugal; Spain energy poverty; modeled energy costs; TPR; HEP; equivalization coefficients; under consumption; Greece; Portugal; Spain
MDPI and ACS Style

Antepara, I.; Papada, L.; Gouveia, J.P.; Katsoulakos, N.; Kaliampakos, D. Improving Energy Poverty Measurement in Southern European Regions through Equivalization of Modeled Energy Costs. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5721. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145721

AMA Style

Antepara I, Papada L, Gouveia JP, Katsoulakos N, Kaliampakos D. Improving Energy Poverty Measurement in Southern European Regions through Equivalization of Modeled Energy Costs. Sustainability. 2020; 12(14):5721. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145721

Chicago/Turabian Style

Antepara, Iñigo; Papada, Lefkothea; Gouveia, João P.; Katsoulakos, Nikolas; Kaliampakos, Dimitris. 2020. "Improving Energy Poverty Measurement in Southern European Regions through Equivalization of Modeled Energy Costs" Sustainability 12, no. 14: 5721. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145721

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