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Article

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Rapeseed and Rapeseed Oil Produced in Northern Europe: A Latvian Case Study

1
Polymer Department, Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, 27 Dzerbenes, LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
2
Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, 12-1 Azenes, LV-1039 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5699; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145699
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 2 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 July 2020 / Published: 15 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Assessment of Agri-Food Products)
There is a major international effort to improve the availability of data for life cycle assessment (LCA), as these assessments have become one of the main pillars driving European policy with respect to the sustainable use of resources. However, there is still a lack of data even for Europe. This study presents a cradle-to-farm gate assessment, or LCA, of winter and spring rapeseed produced in the northern European country of Latvia. The LCA model is based on an in-depth and up-to-date agricultural practice used in the region and covers the time span of 2008–2016. An LCA of rapeseed oil produced by cold pressing was carried out. The environmental impact assessment was calculated with the ReCiPe impact assessment method version 1.03, a hierarchical (H) perspective, along with the cumulative energy demand method v1.11. Cultivation of winter rapeseed has a lower environmental impact than cultivation of spring rapeseed due to higher agricultural inputs and higher yield. The greatest impact is on human health. Mineral fertilizers (production and application) and agricultural machinery are responsible for the greatest environmental impact. The results for the mill stage of rapeseed oil demonstrated that the choice of the allocation method has a significant impact on the environmental performance results. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment; rapeseed; rapeseed oil; fertilizers; environmental impacts life cycle assessment; rapeseed; rapeseed oil; fertilizers; environmental impacts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fridrihsone, A.; Romagnoli, F.; Cabulis, U. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Rapeseed and Rapeseed Oil Produced in Northern Europe: A Latvian Case Study. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5699. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145699

AMA Style

Fridrihsone A, Romagnoli F, Cabulis U. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Rapeseed and Rapeseed Oil Produced in Northern Europe: A Latvian Case Study. Sustainability. 2020; 12(14):5699. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145699

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fridrihsone, Anda, Francesco Romagnoli, and Ugis Cabulis. 2020. "Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Rapeseed and Rapeseed Oil Produced in Northern Europe: A Latvian Case Study" Sustainability 12, no. 14: 5699. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145699

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