2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
3.1. Exposure and Susceptibility Assessment
3.2. Assessment of Coping Capacity
4. Discussion of a New Framework
- The examination of the landform, flood hazard maps and building locations of the target area indicated that it is a highly flood-prone area and that the projected maximum inundation depth in Naganuma district could be as high as 20 m. However, many houses were constructed in relatively less dangerous locations, proving that the local community has taken certain measures to reduce the degree of susceptibility to flooding.
- The comparison between flood hazard maps and the estimated inundation depth distribution on 13 October 2019 indicated that the flood hazard map for the target area provided reliable information on high flood risk zones, although it needs further improvement to provide more accurate information of inundation depths.
- An adaptation measure taken 100 years ago has increased the financial capacity of the local community to deal with flood disasters. However, it may have heightened its susceptibility to flood hazard at the same time.
- Although the coping capacity of the community can be characterized as being financially capable because of the well-established insurance and government aid systems, it is insufficient in terms of human resources for reconstruction.
- Given that a large number of residents were rescued, not evacuated before the occurrence of the disaster, and that shelters near residential areas malfunctioned, the coping capacity of the local community can also be characterized as being very high in terms of preparedness but questionable with regard to the implementation of the emergency response plan.
- Based on our fieldwork, we concluded that the distance or proximity to a hazard can be an important determinant of the flood risk management strategy taken by a company.
- Besides, the analysis showed that Sakura levees can reduce the stress of residents, but also increase the exposure of local residents to a flood disaster. Such a culture-induced exposure deserves further study.
- The work also suggested that the enhancement of coping capacity via insurance may hinder the reduction of susceptibility to the impacts of flooding and proposed a new framework for vulnerability management.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Warning Level||Evacuation Information||Meteorological Information||Advised Action|
|1||Early advisory||Be in a state of readiness|
|2||Heavy rain/flooding advisory||Verify evacuation routes|
|3||Evacuation preparation||Heavy rain/flooding warning||Evacuate elderly and other persons requiring assistance|
|4||Evacuation orders/advisories||Landslide warning||Full evacuation|
|5||Disaster-level||Heavy rain emergency warning||Take optimal measures to save lives|
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