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Open AccessFeature PaperConcept Paper

Urban Blue Acupuncture: A Protocol for Evaluating a Complex Landscape Design Intervention to Improve Health and Wellbeing in a Coastal Community

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Chair of Landscape Architecture, Estonian University of life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56/3, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
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Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of Edinburgh, 74 Lauriston Place, Edinburgh EH3 9DF, UK
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European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall TR1 3HD, UK
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Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK
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Plymouth City Council, Plymouth, Plymouth PL1 3BJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4084; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104084
Received: 22 April 2020 / Revised: 11 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 16 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Within the BlueHealth project, funded under the Horizon 2020 European Union research framework, a number of targeted experimental design interventions were used to test the effect and impact of planning and design on encouraging people to use various blue spaces. Complex interventions were implemented and evaluations before and after each were made using a set of tools which triangulate with each other—a site assessment tool, a behaviour observation tool, a questionnaire survey (including an economic evaluation) and qualitative interviews. The theoretical basis for the research is that of affordances, and the projects each involved modest changes to the landscape using the approach of “urban acupuncture” where a small intervention can potentially have an effect out of all proportion to the investment. This paper is a protocol paper and describes the research strategy and methodology in detail for one of the intervention sites, located in Plymouth in the UK. The aim is to present the methodology as a whole so as to act as (a) a reference framework for the results of all the projects which will be reported separately in a series of research articles once all the results are in and analysed and (b) a useful reference for other researchers wishing to carry out such complex projects and where a comprehensive presentation of the strategy and methodology is unavailable. We offer this protocol for reference, for critique and for inspiration to those following us. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban acupuncture; evidence-based design; complex intervention; multi-methods; Plymouth urban acupuncture; evidence-based design; complex intervention; multi-methods; Plymouth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bell, S.; Mishra, H.S.; Elliott, L.R.; Shellock, R.; Vassiljev, P.; Porter, M.; Sydenham, Z.; White, M.P. Urban Blue Acupuncture: A Protocol for Evaluating a Complex Landscape Design Intervention to Improve Health and Wellbeing in a Coastal Community. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4084. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104084

AMA Style

Bell S, Mishra HS, Elliott LR, Shellock R, Vassiljev P, Porter M, Sydenham Z, White MP. Urban Blue Acupuncture: A Protocol for Evaluating a Complex Landscape Design Intervention to Improve Health and Wellbeing in a Coastal Community. Sustainability. 2020; 12(10):4084. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104084

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bell, Simon; Mishra, Himansu S.; Elliott, Lewis R.; Shellock, Rebecca; Vassiljev, Peeter; Porter, Miriam; Sydenham, Zoe; White, Mathew P. 2020. "Urban Blue Acupuncture: A Protocol for Evaluating a Complex Landscape Design Intervention to Improve Health and Wellbeing in a Coastal Community" Sustainability 12, no. 10: 4084. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104084

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