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Open AccessArticle

Smartphone Use and Academic Performance of University Students: A Mediation and Moderation Analysis

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Faculty of Management Sciences, Indus University, Block-17, Gulshan, Karachi 75300, Pakistan
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Institute of Health Management, Dow University of Health Sciences, Mission Road, Karachi 74200, Pakistan
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Institute of Sport Science and Innovations, Lithuanian Sports University, Sporto str. 6, Kaunas 44221, Lithuania
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College of Business Management, PAF-KIET University, Korangi Creek, Karachi 75190, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010439
Received: 3 December 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 1 January 2020 / Published: 6 January 2020
The purpose of the undertaken study is to examine the influence of smartphones on the performance of university students in Pakistan. This paper also investigates the functions of a smartphone as exogenous predictors such as smartphone applications, multimedia messaging service (MMS), short message service (SMS), warp-speed processing, and entertainment on the academic performance of a student. This paper also addresses the impact of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) and attitude as mediating variables between exogenous and endogenous variables. Finally, we incorporated technology and addiction as moderating variables between independent variables and the outcome variable to measure the influence of moderating variables. We have taken 684 responses from seven universities in Pakistan and employed the SEM-based multivariate approach for the analysis of the data. The findings of this paper demonstrate that smartphone functions have a significant influence on students’ academic performance, and moderating and mediating variables also have a significant influence on exogenous and endogenous variables. The practical implications have provided a guideline for university teachers, parents, and decision-makers of how a smartphone could be used to improve student academic performance inside and outside university campuses. View Full-Text
Keywords: smartphone usage; academic performance; university students; SEM-based approach; mediation and moderation smartphone usage; academic performance; university students; SEM-based approach; mediation and moderation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, R.R.; Salman, F.; Malik, S.A.; Streimikiene, D.; Soomro, R.H.; Pahi, M.H. Smartphone Use and Academic Performance of University Students: A Mediation and Moderation Analysis. Sustainability 2020, 12, 439. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010439

AMA Style

Ahmed RR, Salman F, Malik SA, Streimikiene D, Soomro RH, Pahi MH. Smartphone Use and Academic Performance of University Students: A Mediation and Moderation Analysis. Sustainability. 2020; 12(1):439. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010439

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmed, Rizwan R.; Salman, Faryal; Malik, Shahab A.; Streimikiene, Dalia; Soomro, Riaz H.; Pahi, Munwar H. 2020. "Smartphone Use and Academic Performance of University Students: A Mediation and Moderation Analysis" Sustainability 12, no. 1: 439. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010439

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