Next Article in Journal
Facile Bioinspired Preparation of [email protected] Hydroxyapatite Nanoflowers for the Biosynthesis of 5′-Fluorodeoxy Adenosine
Previous Article in Journal
Does Fashionization Impede Luxury Brands’ CSR Image?
Open AccessArticle

Does Fertilizer Use Intensity Respond to the Urban-Rural Income Gap? Evidence from a Dynamic Panel-Data Analysis in China

by 1,* and 2
1
School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
2
School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010430
Received: 11 December 2019 / Revised: 2 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 6 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
This study aims to investigate the impact of the urban-rural income gap on fertilizer use intensity in China. A theoretical analysis of the relationship among per capita rural income, the urban-rural income gap, and fertilizer use intensity is developed, which is similar to the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Both the Theil index and urban-rural income ratio are employed to measure the urban-rural income gap using a provincial-level panel dataset covering 25 provincial-level administrative regions over the period 1995–2017. The estimation results of the system Generalized Method of Moments show that the expansion of the urban-rural income gap significantly increases fertilizer use intensity. While an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between fertilizer use intensity and per capita rural income, the peak turning point is much higher than the actual per capita rural income of all provinces in China. This demonstrates that fertilizer use intensity would further increase with the growth of rural income over a period of time. In addition, a lower growth rate of the agricultural product price, larger total sown size, and technological progress are likely to reduce fertilizer use intensity. This study has several important policy implications for promoting the sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas in China. Specifically, efforts must be made to narrow the urban-rural income gap, encourage agricultural research and extension, and promote land conversion and appropriately scaled-up agricultural business. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban-rural income gap; fertilizer use; environmental Kuznets curve; Theil index urban-rural income gap; fertilizer use; environmental Kuznets curve; Theil index
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, C.; Hu, R. Does Fertilizer Use Intensity Respond to the Urban-Rural Income Gap? Evidence from a Dynamic Panel-Data Analysis in China. Sustainability 2020, 12, 430. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010430

AMA Style

Zhang C, Hu R. Does Fertilizer Use Intensity Respond to the Urban-Rural Income Gap? Evidence from a Dynamic Panel-Data Analysis in China. Sustainability. 2020; 12(1):430. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010430

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa. 2020. "Does Fertilizer Use Intensity Respond to the Urban-Rural Income Gap? Evidence from a Dynamic Panel-Data Analysis in China" Sustainability 12, no. 1: 430. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010430

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop