Towards a Low-Carbon Economy: A Nexus-Oriented Policy Coherence Analysis in Greece
2. The Nexus Approach and the Role of Policies in the Nexus Governance
3. Methodological Approach
- Problem identification/Key research questions: The problem is identified and key research questions are formulated. Problem and related research questions define the boundaries of investigation and the nexus components involved. For example, if the problem is water allocation in a region where there is a power plant, irrigated farm land and populated areas, the nexus object of investigation is that of water-energy-agriculture.
- Stakeholder mapping: The participatory dimension is emphasised through the mobilization of stakeholders. Stakeholders interested in or influencing the nexus are engaged in the identification and analysis of the relevant policies. Their role (formal or informal) during policy making and policy implementation is explored through in-depth semi-structured interviews and knowledge elicitation workshops. Relevant stakeholders are invited to contribute to policy mapping and policy coherence assessment.
- Policy mapping—Nexus goals and instruments: A policy inventory is conducted. Policy goals and policy instruments, relevant to the problem being investigated, are identified across the nexus sectors. Stakeholders support the process with their experience and expertise (interviews, stakeholders’ workshop).
- Identification of nexus-critical objectives and instruments: The most critical policy objectives and policy instruments are determined. A ‘nexus-critical objective’ is highly relevant for the nexus issues investigated and has a significant number of interactions with other objectives taken into consideration . A ‘nexus-critical instrument’ is highly relevant for the nexus issues investigated and has a meaningful number of interactions with the nexus-critical objectives . Stakeholders contribute to the identification of critical objectives and instruments.
- Policy coherence assessment/Validation by stakeholders: Experts conduct the assessment of coherence (qualitative assessment) among objectives and between objectives and instruments using the approach developed by Nilsson et al. . Stakeholders are then invited to validate the results.
4. Assessment of Policy Coherence in the Case of Greece
4.1. Problem Identification and Research Questions
- Water scarcity and droughts that will be further exacerbated by climate change.
- Spatial and temporal water availability and demand.
- Increase renewable energy sources (RES) share in the national energy mix.
- Reduction of GHG emissions.
- Elimination of land use conflicts.
- Production of high quality agri-food products.
- Further development of tourism.
- Water saving from irrigation.
- How water and energy policies affect agri-food production and the future development of tourism?
- What kind of policy co-operations should be established in order to eliminate water losses in the agricultural sector, support the production of sufficient food and boost the development of a low-carbon economy?
- Which are the most efficient adaptation and mitigation practices for combating water scarcity and strengthen agricultural production under climate change conditions?
4.2. Stakeholders Mapping and Engagement
4.3. Identification of Policy Objectives and Policy Instruments
- Climate: Reduction of GHG emissions, protection of atmosphere quality, climate change adaptation and mitigation options.
- Energy: Sustainable use of energy sources, development of infrastructures that exploit RES for energy production, penetration of RES in the country’s energy mix, implementation of energy saving practices and promotion of energy efficient solutions.
- Land: Land use regulations and management of land use conflicts.
- Water: Protection and sustainable use of surface water and groundwater, mitigation of pollution in natural ecosystems.
- Food: Food production, food and fodder quality, preservation of traditional and scarce seeds.
- Incentive-based instruments: Emission taxes, tradable allowance systems or ‘cap-and-trade’, subsidies for pollution abatement, taxes on inputs or goods associated with emissions.
- Direct regulatory instruments (command and control): Technology mandates, performance standards, permits.
- Voluntary regulation: Government-industry negotiated agreements, certification standards, auditing and accountings, etc.
- Informational instruments: Information campaigns, labelling and produce information, exhortation and moral suasion, etc.
- Technology-based policies: R&D policies, technology deployment policies.
4.4. Policy Coherence Assessment
4.4.1. Interactions among Nexus-Critical Objectives
- W4 ‘Combating floods and droughts’ & C2 ‘Increase climate change adaptation and resilience’/C3 ‘Combating climate change impacts in the sectors of agriculture, tourism, water, food and land uses’.
- E1 ‘Achievement of the national energy goals’ & C1 ‘Decrease of emissions’.
- F1 ‘Sustainable development of agricultural sector’ & L1 ‘Promote sustainable spatial integration so as to eliminate spatial inequalities’.
- E5 ‘Promotion and extensive use of natural gas’ & C1 ‘Decrease of GHG emissions’.
- W1 ‘Sustainable management of surface water resources’ & F4 ‘Establishment of strict terms and conditions on pesticides use’.
- F1 ‘Sustainable development of agricultural sector’ & L4 ‘Spatially balanced distribution of industry’.
4.4.2. Interactions between Nexus-Critical Instruments and Nexus-Critical Objectives
- Instrument Ef ‘Funding the use of renewables in buildings for electricity generation, heating and cooling purposes’ and objective E5 ‘Promotion and extensive use of natural gas’.
- Instrument Eg ‘Incentives (i.e., low prices) for further exploitation and use of natural gas’ and objectives: C1 ‘Decrease of GHG emissions (national and EU climate goals)’ & C3 ‘Combating climate change impacts in the sectors of agriculture, tourism, water, food and land uses’.
- Instrument Ce ‘Organisation of consultation meetings and participatory workshops for enhancing awareness and public dialogue regarding climate change’ and objective E5 ‘Promotion and extensive use of natural gas’.
- Instrument Cf ‘Specific measures for limiting emissions (increased taxes in electricity produced from coal, increased fuel taxes) and objective E5 ‘Promotion and extensive use of natural gas’.
4.5. Stakeholders’ Validation
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|Climate||C1: Decrease GHG emissions (national and EU climate goals)|
|C2: Increase climate change adaptation and resilience|
|C3: Combating climate change impacts in the sectors of agriculture, tourism, water, food and land uses|
|C4: Empowerment of social awareness (participatory actions) on issues related to climate change|
|C5: Reinforce emissions trading actions in the sectors of industry and aviation (Directive 2003/87/EC)|
|Water||W1: Promote sustainable management of surface water resources|
|W2: Promote sustainable management of subsurface water resources|
|W3: Protect aquatic systems and reduction of pollution|
|W4: Combating floods and droughts|
|W5: Establishment of an updated water pricing system regulating water uses in several sectors (agricultural, industrial, domestic, touristic, commercial, etc.)|
|Food and Agriculture||F1: Sustainable development of agricultural sector|
|F2: Protection of plant genetic resources and balanced distribution of benefits generated by their exploitation|
|F3: Sustainable development of livestock (determination of preconditions)|
|F4: Establishment of strict terms and conditions on pesticides use|
|F5: Sustainable development of aquaculture|
|F6: Ensure food and fodder safety and quality|
|Energy||E1: Achievement of the national energy goals including: increased penetration of RES in the national energy mix (20%) and increased energy efficiency|
|E2: Increased generation of electrical power from RES|
|E3: Promotion and use of cogeneration|
|E4: Official regulation and update of energy prices|
|E5: Promotion and extensive use of natural gas|
|E6: Increase energy saving and efficient use of energy|
|Land||L1: Promote sustainable spatial integration so as to eliminate spatial inequalities|
|L2: Sustain a well-balanced national economy and strengthen competitiveness|
|L3: Spatial organisation of aquaculture|
|L4: Spatially balanced distribution of industry|
|Tourism||T1: Sustainable development of tourism|
|T2: Boost tourist entrepreneurship|
|T3: Reinforcement of tourist training initiatives|
|T4: Improvement of the offered tourist services|
|Climate||Ca: Funding R&D initiatives in the sector of renewables|
|Cb: Subsidies supporting the adoption of technologies that ‘capture’ CO2|
|Cc: Subsidies supporting the use of technologies contributing to the decrease of methane emissions|
|Cd: Indicators (e.g., atmospheric concentrations of GHGs, vulnerability indices, indices of extreme events) for estimating climate change impacts|
|Ce: Organisation of consultation meetings and participatory workshops for enhancing awareness and public dialogue regarding climate change|
|Cf: Tax measures for limiting emissions including increased taxes in electricity produced from coal and increased fuel taxes|
|Water||Wa: Development of a national network of stations for tracking quality and quantity of water resources|
|Wb: Funds for initiatives and technologies regulating water uses and limiting over-consumption (i.e., smart taps, renovation of irrigation systems, water recycle and reuse)|
|Wc: Expand the use of technologies that: (a) measure water pollution, (b) detect sources of pollution|
|Wd: Full recovery of costs for water supply services based on assessment of costs for domestic use, irrigation, processing of waste and sewerage|
|We: Constitution of national plans (scientific reports and maps) aiming at the effective assessment and management of flood effects and impacts of possible droughts|
|Wf: Establishment of a national registry of all surface and groundwater resources along with their particular characteristics|
|Wg: Completion of the river basin management plans for the 14 water districts of Greece (WFD 2000/60)|
|Food and Agriculture||Fa: Creation of a registry of plant genetic resources for the agricultural and agri-food sectors|
|Fb: Subsidies for crop diversification with focus on crops adapted to the local conditions of each region|
|Fc: Terms and conditions for the development of livestock (identification of suitable locations, minimum area and minimum distance among livestock facilities, etc.)|
|Fd: Ban of dangerous and toxic pesticides, strict measures and penalties for protecting biological crops from pesticides, adoption of pesticides’ detection technologies|
|Fe: Measures monitoring quality of aquaculture products, funding innovative technologies in the aquaculture sector|
|Ff: Adopting ISOs and funding the production of certified products to control food and fodders quality and safety|
|Energy||Ea: Development of wind parks|
|Eb: Development of hydroelectric power plants|
|Ec: Development of geothermal power plants|
|Ed: Development of photovoltaics (subsidies)|
|Ee: Funding cogeneration systems in buildings and large scale infrastructures (e.g., greenhouses)|
|Ef: Funding the use of renewables in buildings for electricity generation, heating and cooling purposes|
|Eg: Incentives (i.e., low prices) for further exploitation and use of natural gas|
|Eh: High prices of renewable energy|
|Ei: Funding innovative technologies for assessing energy consumption and estimating energy losses in the industrial and domestic sectors|
|Land||La: Land use regulations including completion of the Greek Cadastre|
|Lb: Development of synergies and co-operations among economic sectors (e.g., funding agro-tourist activities and small-industries processing agricultural products)|
|Lc: Funding agricultural entrepreneurship and SMEs to reduce inequalities between urban and agricultural areas|
|Ld: Funding the business sector to reinforce entrepreneurship|
|Le: Funding schemes that support renovation of social infrastructures (hospitals, nursing homes, educational institutions)|
|Lf: Subsidies supporting specialisation in the several productive sectors (agriculture, industry, tourism)|
|Lg: Spatial plans determining suitable areas and terms under which aquaculture activities may be developed|
|Lh: Spatial plans and land use regulations for industry (Organisation of industrial areas and decentralisation of industry)|
|Li: Establishment of special, multi-scale and local-oriented spatial plans setting specific terms for the development of each region based on its particular characteristics|
|Tourism||Ta: Funding the establishment of infrastructures that serve specific tourist needs such as ski centres, agro-tourist infrastructures, conference centres, etc. (investments in sophisticated tourist activities)|
|Tb: Regulation of land uses in tourist regions in order to identify suitable areas for tourist development|
|Tc: Funding the establishment of a tourist observatory|
|Td: Funding tourist training activities and tourist expertise/Organization of seminars and tourist training centres|
|Te: Adaptation of the tourist product based on the particular historical, geographical and environmental profile of each region|
|Tf: Reinforcement of networking and synergetic actions among tourist businesses|
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Papadopoulou, C.-A.; Papadopoulou, M.P.; Laspidou, C.; Munaretto, S.; Brouwer, F. Towards a Low-Carbon Economy: A Nexus-Oriented Policy Coherence Analysis in Greece. Sustainability 2020, 12, 373. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010373
Papadopoulou C-A, Papadopoulou MP, Laspidou C, Munaretto S, Brouwer F. Towards a Low-Carbon Economy: A Nexus-Oriented Policy Coherence Analysis in Greece. Sustainability. 2020; 12(1):373. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010373Chicago/Turabian Style
Papadopoulou, Chrysaida-Aliki, Maria P. Papadopoulou, Chrysi Laspidou, Stefania Munaretto, and Floor Brouwer. 2020. "Towards a Low-Carbon Economy: A Nexus-Oriented Policy Coherence Analysis in Greece" Sustainability 12, no. 1: 373. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010373