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Open AccessArticle

Equity in Access to Outdoor Recreation—Informing a Sustainable Future

US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507, USA
School of Behavioral and Organizational Sciences, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA 91711, USA
Department of Psychology, California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 124;
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 22 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outdoor Recreation, Nature-Based Tourism, and Sustainability)
Despite an increasingly ethnically and racially diverse population in the United States (U.S.), growing evidence indicates that minorities are underrepresented in national forest visitation. Many reasons for continuing underrepresentation have been examined, involving research reaching back multiple decades. In the current study, a random sample of residents (n = 1977) from four large metropolitan statistical areas in California was involved in a telephone survey about forest visitation. Analysis revealed a continuing pattern of inequities in lifetime visitation to a national forest, as well as recency of visitation. Constraints to national forest visitation show similarities among groups. Lack of time was the most often mentioned constraint, with resource-related constraints more frequently cited by minority respondents. In contrast to prior studies, a lack of information or concerns about discrimination were not cited by survey respondents, though the open-ended approach to top constraints may underpin some of this variation from prior research. The primary information source for outdoor recreation used most frequently and most trusted was the Internet, followed closely by social networks (family and friends). In the presentation of U.S. outdoor recreation information, natural resource management agencies, use groups, and opportunity providers would benefit from incorporating culturally relevant messaging and images to affirm the message of inclusion and welcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: outdoor recreation; cultural diversity; equity; barriers; cultural competence outdoor recreation; cultural diversity; equity; barriers; cultural competence
MDPI and ACS Style

Winter, P.L.; Crano, W.D.; Basáñez, T.; Lamb, C.S. Equity in Access to Outdoor Recreation—Informing a Sustainable Future. Sustainability 2020, 12, 124.

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