Reverse logistics is convincingly one of the most efficient solutions to reduce environmental pollution and waste of resources by capturing and recovering the values of the used products. Many studies have been developed for decision-making at tactical, practical, and operational levels of the reverse supply chain. However, many enterprises face a challenge that is how to design the reverse logistics networks into their existing forward logistics networks to account for both economic and environmental sustainability. In this case, it is necessary to design a novel reverse logistics network by reconstructing the facilities based on the existing forward logistics network. Multi-level investments are considered for facility reconstruction because more investment and more advanced remanufacturing technologies need to be applied to reduce the carbon emissions and improve facility capacities. Besides, uncertain elements include the demand for new products and return quantity of used products, making this problem challenging. To handle those uncertain elements, a bi-objective stochastic integer nonlinear programming model is proposed to facilitate this novel reverse logistics network design problem with economic and environmental objectives, where tactical decisions of facility locations, investment level choices, item flows, and vehicle assignments are involved. To show the applicability and computational efficiency of the proposed model, several numerical experiments with sensitivity analysis are provided. Finally, the trade-off between the profit and carbon emissions is presented and the sensitive analysis of changing several key input parameters is also discussed.
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