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Effects of the Loss on Ignition of Fly Ash on the Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete

Department of Civil Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University, No.145, Xingda Road, Taichung City 402, Taiwan
Department of Civil Engineering, Chienkuo Technology University, No.1, Chiehshou North Road, Chunghau City 500, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2704;
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
PDF [2355 KB, uploaded 13 May 2019]


This study presents the experimental results of fresh and hardened properties of concrete incorporating high-volume fly ash (HVFA). Two kinds of low-calcium fly ash with loss on ignition (LOI) of 5% and 8% were used as replacement for cement and/or fine aggregate of 0% (control), 20%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 80% by weight of the total cementitious materials. The properties of fresh concrete tested included the slump, air content, unit weight and setting time; those of hardened concrete determined included compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and drying shrinkage. Test results indicate that the concretes made with high-LOI (8%) fly ash can be successfully produced for structural concrete, which contains fly ash of up to 60% of the total cementitious materials. The high-LOI fly ash-concretes with higher replacement levels presented longer setting times. However, although both the fresh and hardened properties of high LOI fly ash concretes were inferior to those of the low-LOI (5%) fly ash concretes, the high modulus of elasticity, the adequate strength development characteristics both at early and later ages (up to 365 days) and the low dry shrinkage were observed when compared to those of the control concrete with a comparable 28-day compressive strength of 30 MPa. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-volume fly ash; loss on ignition; compressive strength; shrinkage high-volume fly ash; loss on ignition; compressive strength; shrinkage

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Chen, H.-J.; Shih, N.-H.; Wu, C.-H.; Lin, S.-K. Effects of the Loss on Ignition of Fly Ash on the Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2704.

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