Estimation of CO2 Emissions of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle and Battery Electric Vehicle Using LCA
Product Strategy Div., Mazda Motor Corporation, 3-1 Shinchi, Fucho-cho, Aki-gun, Hiroshima 730-8670, Japan
Department of Environmental Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Advanced Engineering, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2690; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092690
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Life Cycle Assessment)
In order to reduce vehicle emitted greenhouse gases (GHGs) on a global scale, the scope of consideration should be expanded to include the manufacturing, fuel extraction, refinement, power generation, and end-of-life phases of a vehicle, in addition to the actual operational phase. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of conventional gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV) were compared with mainstream alternative powertrain technologies, namely battery electric vehicles (BEV), using life-cycle assessment (LCA). In most of the current studies, CO2 emissions were calculated assuming that the region where the vehicles were used, the lifetime driving distance in that region and the CO2 emission from the battery production were fixed. However, in this paper, the life cycle CO2 emissions in each region were calculated taking into consideration the vehicle’s lifetime driving distance in each region and the deviations in CO2 emissions for battery production. For this paper, the US, European Union (EU), Japan, China, and Australia were selected as the reference regions for vehicle operation. The calculated results showed that CO2 emission from the assembly of BEV was larger than that of ICV due to the added CO2 emissions from battery production. However, in regions where renewable energy sources and low CO2 emitting forms of electric power generation are widely used, as vehicle lifetime driving distance increase, the total operating CO2 emissions of BEV become less than that of ICV. But for BEV, the CO2 emissions for replacing the battery with a new one should be added when the lifetime driving distance is over 160,000 km. Moreover, it was shown that the life cycle CO2 emission of ICV was apt to be smaller than that of BEV when the CO2 emissions for battery production were very large.