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Mediating Bullying and Strain in Higher Education Institutions: The Case of Pakistan

Department of Applied Psychology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab 54000, Pakistan
Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab 54000, Pakistan
School of Business & Economics, Deree College—The American College of Greece, 153-42 Athens, Greece
Effat College of Business, Effat University, P.O. Box 34689, Jeddah 21478, Saudi Arabia
Department of Operations, Technology, Events and Hospitality Management, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GF, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2244;
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
PDF [565 KB, uploaded 15 April 2019]


Although workplace bullying is a well-researched phenomenon, the specific way it unfolds in higher education institutions (HEI) remains largely underdiscussed. Based on the outcomes of a survey conducted across HEI in Pakistan, by reference to structural equation modeling, using Amos-20, this paper not only adds to our understanding of the scope and features of bullying in HEI, but also suggests strategies employers and victims could employ to cope with the adverse implications of bullying. The key findings of this research are: (i) a positive correlation exists between the degree of workplace bullying and strain levels; (ii) more frequently than not, female employees, younger employees, and employees in junior positions are victims of bullying; (iii) bullying and strain can be fully mediated only when both emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies are employed in synergy. In brief, although research findings elaborated in this paper draw from the specific case of HEI in Pakistan, this paper makes a case for more research, vigilance and action to understand the scale of the phenomenon in academia and to undertake concerted action to mitigate its adverse impact on specific individuals and HEI themselves. View Full-Text
Keywords: workplace bullying; HEI; coping strategies; administration; sustainability workplace bullying; HEI; coping strategies; administration; sustainability

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Anjum, A.; Muazzam, A.; Manzoor, F.; Visvizi, A.; Nawaz, R. Mediating Bullying and Strain in Higher Education Institutions: The Case of Pakistan. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2244.

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