The Utilization of Waste Marble Dust as a Cement Replacement in Air-Cured Mortar
2. Materials and Methods
- E: Flow expressed as a percentage (%),
- : Final diameter (cm),
- : Initial diameter (cm).
- : Apparent density (kg/m3),
- : Mass of the dry specimen (kg),
- : Total volume of the specimen (m3).
- : Compressive strength (MPa),
- : Failure load (N),
- : Loading area (mm2).
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Properties of Fresh Mortars
3.2. Properties of Hardened Mortars
- The utilization of WMD as a partial replacement of cement does not significantly affect the flow property of fresh mortar, where the results were found to be compatible with ASTM C270.
- The macro properties of mortars were affected negatively due to the incorporation of WMD and to the air-curing conditions that caused an incomplete hydration process in which the compressive strength and apparent density decreased, and the porosity increased.
- The compressive strength and apparent density of ACM mixed with and without WMD grew with an increase in curing duration and fell with a corresponding increase of WMD.
- The use of WMD in an amount of up to 15% caused an increase in porosity. It may be mainly due to the trapped water between WMD particles which reduces the water required for the hydration of cement. In addition, the accumulated WMD around the cement grains can prevent the hydration process.
- The utilization of WMD has trapped the air in the mortar and, thus, trapping air creates air voids.
- The brightness histogram of ACM indicates that the utilization of WMD contributes to an increase of pores, CH and partially hydrated grains and a decrease of hydration products.
- The CH content of the cement matrix in ACM increases with a corresponding increase of WMD. It may be mainly due to the water accumulating around WMD particles that leads to an incomplete hydration process. In addition, the WMD may accumulate around the cement grains and can prevent the contact between the cement grains and water. Therefore, it may lead to a slight reduction of the hydration products.
- The pore area in ACM smaller than 500 µm2 represent 97% of the total pores, and these pores represent the spaces previously occupied by water. The WMD cannot can fill these pores because 50% of its particles are less than 30 µm.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Oxide Content (%)||Ordinary Portland Cement||WMD||Sand|
|Loss on ignition (L.O.I)||2.04||41.63||18.23|
|Insoluble Residue (I.R)||0.382||0.06||0.234|
|Solid density (kg/m3)||3150||2740||2656.5|
|Bulk density (kg/m3)||980||980||1631.23|
|Blaine fineness (cm2/g)||3571.78||3869.46||-|
|WMD Content (%)||Ordinary Portland Cement (kg/m3)||WMD (kg/m3)||Sand (kg/m3)||Water (kg/m3)||w/b|
|WMD Content (%)||Flow (%)||Flow Required by ASTM C270|
|0||110.92||110 ± 5%|
|WMD Content (%)||Area and Percentage Share of Pores (mm2)||Area and Percentage Share of CH (mm2)|
|In Mortars||In Sand Aggregates||In Cement Matrix|
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Toubal Seghir, N.; Mellas, M.; Sadowski, Ł.; Krolicka, A.; Żak, A.; Ostrowski, K. The Utilization of Waste Marble Dust as a Cement Replacement in Air-Cured Mortar. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2215. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082215
Toubal Seghir N, Mellas M, Sadowski Ł, Krolicka A, Żak A, Ostrowski K. The Utilization of Waste Marble Dust as a Cement Replacement in Air-Cured Mortar. Sustainability. 2019; 11(8):2215. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082215Chicago/Turabian Style
Toubal Seghir, Nadhir, Mekki Mellas, Łukasz Sadowski, Aleksandra Krolicka, Andrzej Żak, and Krzysztof Ostrowski. 2019. "The Utilization of Waste Marble Dust as a Cement Replacement in Air-Cured Mortar" Sustainability 11, no. 8: 2215. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082215