2.1. Literature Review
- AChEE (Chilean Energy Efficiency Agency)
- MOE (Ministry of Energy in Chile)
- MOP EE (Eficiencia Energetica) Ministry of Public Works
- Passivhaus Chile
2.2. Framework Development
2.3. Focus Group Discussions
- Technological Approach
- Energy Efficiency and Primary Energy Requirements
- Comfort Requirements
- Renewables Share
- Construction Quality
3.1. NZEB Defintions
3.2. NZEB Principles
- Reduce the energy demand for all newly constructed buildings. The energy demand value is for the sum of the demands of buildings, space heating, space cooling, DHW, auxiliary energy, ventilation, lighting, and appliances .
- Improve IEQ, allowing for maximum thermal comfort and avoidance of overheating. This includes air quality control through mechanical ventilation .
- Fix a percentage of renewable energy demand to be covered by renewable energy annual balance.
- Reduce the overarching value for primary energy consumption and carbon emissions per year. It is also important to amend additional measures to address mobility and materials’ embodied energy issues .
3.3. A Framework for a New Standard for Chile
- is the primary energy indicator (kWh/m2.a);
- is the net used floor area (m2) calculated according to national definition;
- is the non-renewable primary energy (kWh/a);
- is the delivered energy on site (kWh/a) for energy carrier i;
- is the non-renewable primary energy factor for the delivered energy carrier i;
- is the exported energy on site (kWh/a) for energy carrier i;
- is the non-renewable primary energy factor for the delivered energy compensated by the exported energy for energy carrier i; which is equal to the factor of the delivered energy, if not defined nationally in different way.
- is the CO2 emission indicator (kgCO2/m2.a);
- is CO2 emission (kgCO2/a);
- is the net used floor area (m2) calculated according to national definition;
- is the delivered energy on site (kWh/a) for energy carrier i;
- is the CO2 emission coefficient (kgCO2/kWh) for the delivered energy carrier i;
- is the exported energy on site (kWh/a) for energy carrier i;
- is the CO2 emission coefficient (kgCO2/kWh) for the exported energy carrier I, depending on national definition.
3.4. Focus Group Discussions
- The absence of environmental taxation systems for fossil energy and energy pricing policy, results in economic subsidies for investments in buildings energy efficiency.
- NZEB green technologies investment costs are viewed as excessively high particularly in relation the high real estate cost and low wages in Chile. A fact that stand as a barrier in the proliferation of NZEB .
- The lack of institutional infrastructure to enforce the compliance with the TDRe and building certification and the absence of penalties for code violation.
- The current building code (TDRe) is outdated and need to align with the NZEB approach.
- There is a lack of professional qualification and vocational education and technical staff ready to handle NZEB solutions and technologies.
- Public awareness of the end-users on the importance of healthy and climate neural buildings is limited.
- There is an underdeveloped market and absence of an industrial infrastructure to carry on an ecosystems’ of NZEB components and materials producers and suppliers. The Chilean market is open to imports without protection and investments in local made energy efficiency technologies.
4.1. Summary of Main Findings
- The identification of context-specific comfort requirements for all building types to allow setting the performance thresholds for NZEB. Comfort definition and fuel poverty are an important challenge in Chile  that need to be addressed first.
- Developing and adopting a low-tech alternative of the Passive House Standard is a crucial approach to define a low-tech NZEB. There is a need to develop new building service technologies that are adapted to the socio-economic status and local energy market in Chile .
- We developed and validated a set of performance indicators; metrics and performance threshold for a new NZEB standard in Chile (see Table 3).
- Reduction of plug-loads and lighting can facilitate achieving NZEB. The need for building decarbonization will bring electrification to Chile. Therefore, any new standard should address electric loads and suggest measurable consumption limits and foresee the grid flexibility .
- We developed and validated a calculation method for the energy balance that should be included in the new NZEB standard in Chile (see Equations (1) and (2)).
4.2. Strengths and Limitations of the Study
4.3. Implications for Practice and Future Research
Conflicts of Interest
|What technology to develop or transform for the implementation of Zero Energy buildings in Chile?|
Experts: Shady Attia | Andrés Montero | María Elena Soldatti
Representative: Laura Marín Restrepo
| There are technologies in Chile that can support the implementation of Zero Energy buildings, as well as the potential for the use of alternative energies and the technical knowledge for its development. Therefore, the implementation challenges are political and cultural, as well as it is essential to educate the end users of the buildings on issues of sustainability and efficiency.|
Before thinking about technologies or specific design, the city must be planned. Having a regulated and planned urban growth is necessary for energy efficiency and environmental comfort strategies can work. Likewise, it is important to optimize passive strategies first, since in some regions in Chile it is not necessary to invest heavily in technology so that a building consumes less energy and people are comfortable.
It is also considered that culture is important within the space needs and comfort requirements, so it does not apply the same standard. The concern is generated, for example, how to conserve heat and/or heating without using mechanical ventilation? Is it possible? The Zero Energy standard points to greater isolation and necessarily involves mechanical ventilation, however, people in Chile, or at least Concepción, are not familiar with airtight and automated spaces. Can Chileans adapt to artificial environments? Is it necessary in this context? It reflects that a balance must be found between the perception of people and their requirements, with the mechanical systems that are implemented.
The role of real estate and state regulation is fundamental since they usually point to interests that differ. There is pressure from real estate and the construction market to reduce energy efficiency requirements. The option of centralized heating systems, for example, should be stated initiatives, because the real estate market does not support it because it is not convenient for it. Remains the concern about how communities would use these systems in a society such as Chile.
On the other hand, mandatory certification is necessary for effective communication with users. If the buildings declare their performance and the users are informed, they will know what decisions to make and could demand efficient buildings.
Similarly, given that there is a gap between the design/technologies and the construction and operation of the buildings, it is necessary to invest in skilled labor and in trained users to make an actual implementation.
Regarding users, strategies should be sought to change the mentality of making decisions based on immediate impacts by decisions based on performance and long-term, to make investments. For this, the technology must be durable, because, in that way, the users know that the investment is worth it. Likewise, buildings must be functional, fulfil their basic purpose and be simple, so that people accept and demand Zero Energy buildings. Technologies do not need to be high range, they can be simple, and they are already in the market. Simple home automation, for example, can be used to support efficient use.
Finally, regarding the heating requirement, which is the one that demands the most energy in the southern of Chile, it is believed that a change of mentality in people must be pointed out, because, although there are more efficient and less polluting technologies, traditional heating is cheaper, and people do not want to change it.
|What opportunities or restrictions has the application of the concept of Zero Energy Architecture in buildings retrofit in Chile?|
Experts: Luis Braganza | Geoffrey Van Moeseke
Representative: Jeremy Piggot
Retrofitting with Zero Energy criteria in heritage buildings can become quite complicated due to the legal restrictions that exist regarding its modification, and the impact on the aspirations of the community.
|What opportunities or restrictions has the application of the concept of Zero Energy Architecture in new constructions in Chile?|
Experts: Felipe Encinas | Javier del Rio
Representative: Susan Agurto
| It is agreed that in Chile is not feasible to implement the Net Zero standard, but what must be done from the scope of the policy is to define its own standard, feasible to implement and according to the Chilean context.|
The economic factor, investment and cost of the constructions prevent that a standard like the Net Zero can be implemented. It is necessary to differentiate the solutions considering the conditions of local comfort and not under wide parameters that do not differentiate the exigency according to the climate of each locality.
It is necessary to implement economic incentives that motivate the private to invest in such constructions and at the same time create a system that regulates the value that the private will estimate in their projects since the objective would be that the costs for the users do not increase. The normative change is necessary and complementary to the energetic qualification and certification. Progress must be made in both aspects.
It will be necessary, in addition, to carry out an important diffusion campaign to put in value the implementation of sustainable constructions, creating this awareness in the users.
It is necessary to develop a clear roadmap: to update thermal regulation so that it is a requirement to the private; to consolidate the information in a clear plan and to be a legal instrument, as well as to make the population aware of the concepts of sustainability.
|What challenges has the implementation of Zero Energy Architecture to achieve environmental comfort in buildings and reducing energy poverty in Chile?|
Experts: Cristina Engel
Representative: Paulina Wegertseder
| The measures to be implemented must respond to the context in which it is inserted. Perhaps it is easy to reach a Zero Energy standard, but is it enough to achieve it? Are there no other priority problems? Is it what people need?|
There are user habits that show that they are not prepared for certain strategies, for example, ventilation. A challenge is to be part of the design process to the user because they will realize its role. Involving the user is key for a correct use of the building and greater awareness.
In general, independent of the building sector that seeks to improve, it is necessary to involve the user from two perspectives: 1. In the design process as a fundamental variable, as well in the construction stage; 2. Educate him for the stage of use of the building.
On the other hand, it is not enough to reach a Zero Energy standard in a building if you do not consider other deficiencies that influence the user comfort. Energy efficiency must be integral, as a strategy or goal.
|What actions should be taken to ensure that the community demands Zero Energy buildings in Chile?|
Experts: Beatriz Piderit | Jesús Pulido
Representative: Matías Tapia
|Detecting key stakeholders (individuals and institutions) across the whole society, influencing decision-making in the construction sector.|
Organizing activities that integrate these actors, communities and private and public institutions, with all intermediate levels needed to be carried out (broadcasting, meetings, conversations). Efforts should be made to include the private sector (real estate, industrial sector, etc.).
Conducting informational workshops to communities, for example, neighborhood associations, social groups or parent centres, to address the issues of energy efficiency of buildings. Participation of parents in school communities can be used to make broadcasts.
Consolidation report: Laura Marín Restrepo
English version 1: 21 August 2017
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|Country||Non-Residential Buildings (kWh/m2/Year)||Notes|
|Sweden||30–105||ND||Depending on the building type and climate|
|Spain||45–60||120||The proposed indicators aim to define maximum net PE use, maximum total PE use and minimum renewable contribution.|
|Romania||50–102||120–400||Depending on the building type and climate|
|France||70–110||ND||Depending on the climate|
|Denmark||25||25||Included: Heating, cooling, ventilation, DHW, lighting|
|Belgium (Brussels)||90||108||Included: Heating, DHW and appliances|
|First NZEB Principle||Second NZEB Principle||Third NZEB Principle||Fourth NZEB Principle|
|Reduce energy demand||Improve indoor environmental quality||Provide renewable energy share||Reduce primary energy and carbon emissions|
|High-Tech Approach||Low-Tech Approach|
|Energy Efficiency Target:||15–25 kWh/m2y||min. 15–45 kWh/m2y|
|Renewable Energy Target:||15 kWh/m2y||30–45 kWh/m2y|
|Envelope:||Max. Insulation and air tightness static and adaptive models||Max. bioclimatic and passive design solutions|
|Thermal Comfort:||Static and adaptive models||Adaptive models|
|Air Quality:||800 ppm||1200 ppm|
|Behavior:||Conscious and based on rigid operation schedules||Conscious and adaptive|
|Systems:||Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery, ultra-efficient HVAC systems.||Hybrid ventilation, with individual heating and cooling unit.|
|Controls:||Building Management Systems (BMS)||None or manual|
|Monitoring:||Real-time and full monitoring using smart meters.||Monthly and manual energy consumption readings|
|Operation:||Full time dedicated expert or facility manager||By users|
|Cost:||Cost-Optimality calculation every 5 years coupled to incentives||Cost-Optimality calculation every 5 years coupled to incentives|
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