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Open AccessArticle

Standalone Renewable Energy and Hydrogen in an Agricultural Context: A Demonstrative Case

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Intergia Energía Sostenible S.L., Av. Cataluña 19, 50014 Zaragoza, Spain
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Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11040951
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
Standalone renewable energy is widely used to power irrigation systems. However, in agricultural facilities, electricity from the grid and diesel are also consumed. The design and sizing of renewable generation involves difficulties derived from the different seasonal profiles of production and demand. If the generation is 100% renewable, a considerable energy surplus is usually included. This paper is focused on a renewable energy system, which has been installed in a vineyard, located in the northeast of Spain. With energy from the photovoltaic fields, the wastewater treatment plant of the winery, a drip irrigation system and other ancillary consumptions are fed. The favourable effect of combining consumptions with different seasonal profiles is shown. The existence of some deferrable loads and the energy management strategy result in an aggregate consumption curve that is well suited to production. Besides, the required energy storage is relatively small. The surplus energy is used for the on-site production of hydrogen by the electrolysis of water. The hydrogen refuels a hybrid fuel cell electric vehicle, used for the mobility of workers in the vineyard. In summary, electricity and hydrogen are produced on-site (to meet the energy needs) from 100% renewable sources and without operating emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaics; energy management strategy; hydrogen; fuel cells; irrigation; off-grid; Mediterranean crops; vineyard photovoltaics; energy management strategy; hydrogen; fuel cells; irrigation; off-grid; Mediterranean crops; vineyard
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carroquino, J.; Bernal-Agustín, J.-L.; Dufo-López, R. Standalone Renewable Energy and Hydrogen in an Agricultural Context: A Demonstrative Case. Sustainability 2019, 11, 951.

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