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Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030930

A Holistic Wetland Ecological Water Replenishment Scheme with Consideration of Seasonal Effect

1
Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin St., Changchun 130012, China
2
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Water Resources in the Developing Cities)
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Abstract

Wetland ecological water replenishment becomes necessary in most developing countries. A holistic water replenishment scheme considering both wetland ecosystem services and irrigation requirement is needed for river water reallocation. A framework was developed in this study to calculate wetland ecological water demand (WD), river water supply capacity (RSC) and the benefit of wetland ecological water replenishment and crop irrigation with consideration of the seasonal effects. The Xianghai wetland and the Taoerhe irrigation district (TID) were considered as the study area to investigate various wetland ecological water replenishment schemes (WRS). The results showed that the WRS, considering both wetland function and agricultural irrigation, has the highest overall benefit compared to the schemes with a single focus (either wetland or irrigation). In addition, the WRS design must consider the seasonal effect because of seasonal variation of rainfall, crop growth, and wetland plants and animals’ growth. The WRS design with consideration of seasonal effect not only increased the total value of river basin from $74.83 million to $104.02 million but also balanced the benefit between TID and wetland while meeting wetland WD. This study offers a decision-making framework of developing a holistic WRS considering benefits from multiple water users and seasonal variation. View Full-Text
Keywords: wetland; ecological services; seasonal variation; irrigation; water allocation wetland; ecological services; seasonal variation; irrigation; water allocation
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Duan, H.; Xu, M.; Cai, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhou, J.; Zhang, Q. A Holistic Wetland Ecological Water Replenishment Scheme with Consideration of Seasonal Effect. Sustainability 2019, 11, 930.

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