Next Article in Journal
Barriers of Biodiesel Adoption by Transportation Companies: A Case of Malaysian Transportation Industry
Next Article in Special Issue
Natural and Human-Induced Drivers of Groundwater Sustainability: A Case Study of the Mangyeong River Basin in Korea
Previous Article in Journal
A Multi-Objective INLP Model of Sustainable Resource Allocation for Long-Range Maritime Search and Rescue
Article Menu
Issue 3 (February-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 930;

A Holistic Wetland Ecological Water Replenishment Scheme with Consideration of Seasonal Effect

Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin St., Changchun 130012, China
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Water Resources in the Developing Cities)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2385 KB, uploaded 12 February 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports


Wetland ecological water replenishment becomes necessary in most developing countries. A holistic water replenishment scheme considering both wetland ecosystem services and irrigation requirement is needed for river water reallocation. A framework was developed in this study to calculate wetland ecological water demand (WD), river water supply capacity (RSC) and the benefit of wetland ecological water replenishment and crop irrigation with consideration of the seasonal effects. The Xianghai wetland and the Taoerhe irrigation district (TID) were considered as the study area to investigate various wetland ecological water replenishment schemes (WRS). The results showed that the WRS, considering both wetland function and agricultural irrigation, has the highest overall benefit compared to the schemes with a single focus (either wetland or irrigation). In addition, the WRS design must consider the seasonal effect because of seasonal variation of rainfall, crop growth, and wetland plants and animals’ growth. The WRS design with consideration of seasonal effect not only increased the total value of river basin from $74.83 million to $104.02 million but also balanced the benefit between TID and wetland while meeting wetland WD. This study offers a decision-making framework of developing a holistic WRS considering benefits from multiple water users and seasonal variation. View Full-Text
Keywords: wetland; ecological services; seasonal variation; irrigation; water allocation wetland; ecological services; seasonal variation; irrigation; water allocation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Duan, H.; Xu, M.; Cai, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhou, J.; Zhang, Q. A Holistic Wetland Ecological Water Replenishment Scheme with Consideration of Seasonal Effect. Sustainability 2019, 11, 930.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top