Next Article in Journal
The Role of Constructed Wetlands as Green Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Water Management
Previous Article in Journal
Valuing Households’ Willingness to Pay for Water Transfers from the Irrigation Sector: A Case Study of the City of Seville (Southern Spain)
Article

Identifying Temporal Patterns of Visitors to National Parks through Geotagged Photographs

Transport, Infrastructure, and Territory–This, Geography Department, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 6983; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246983
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 7 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published: 6 December 2019
Visitor data is essential for decision-making, policy formulation, and monitoring of protected areas. In this context, the data on the temporal distribution of visitors is essential to characterize influx and seasonality, and even to measure the carrying capacity of a site. However, obtaining information from visitors often involves high costs and long production times. Moreover, traditional visitor data has a limited level of detail. New sources of data can provide valuable information regarding the timing of visits. In this study, we tested the use of geotagged data to infer the temporal distribution of visitors to 15 Spanish national parks, and we identified temporal patterns of the visits at three levels: monthly, weekly, and daily. By comparing official monthly visitor counts and geotagged photographs from Flickr, we observed that the number of monthly users who upload photos significantly reflects the number of monthly visitors. Furthermore, the weekly and daily distributions of the Flickr data provided additional information that could contribute to identifying the periods of highest visitor pressure, design measures to manage the concentration of visitors, and improve the overall visitor experience. The results obtained indicate the potential of new data sources for visitor monitoring in protected areas and to open opportunities for future research. Moreover, monitoring tourism in protected areas is crucial to ensure the sustainability of their resources and to protect their biodiversity. View Full-Text
Keywords: geotagged data; national parks; visitor monitoring; temporal patterns geotagged data; national parks; visitor monitoring; temporal patterns
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Barros, C.; Moya-Gómez, B.; García-Palomares, J.C. Identifying Temporal Patterns of Visitors to National Parks through Geotagged Photographs. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246983

AMA Style

Barros C, Moya-Gómez B, García-Palomares JC. Identifying Temporal Patterns of Visitors to National Parks through Geotagged Photographs. Sustainability. 2019; 11(24):6983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246983

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barros, Carolina, Borja Moya-Gómez, and Juan C. García-Palomares 2019. "Identifying Temporal Patterns of Visitors to National Parks through Geotagged Photographs" Sustainability 11, no. 24: 6983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246983

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop