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Past, Present and Future of Hay-making Structures in Europe

Institute of Landscape Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štefanikova 3, 814 99 Bratislava, Slovakia
Insitu World Heritage Consulting, 10bis, rue du Haras, 78530 Buc, France
Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy
Szent István University, Páter Károly utca 1, 2103 Gödöllő, Hungary
NIBIO–Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Division of Survey and Statistics, P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway
IUAV, University of Venice, 30135 Venezia, Italy
BG Consulting in World Heritage Conflict Management, Ave du Belvédère 199, 83380 Les Issambres, France
Fondazione Fojanini di Studi Superiori, Via Valeriana 32, 23100 Sondrio, Italy
Independent Researcher, 7325 NK Apeldoorn, The Netherlands
Anton Melik Geographical Institute ZRC SAZU, Gosposka ulica 13, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
Faculty of Humanities, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
School of Landscape Architecture, Environmental and Urban Planning, Nürtingen-Geislingen University, Schelmenwasen 4, 72622 Nürtingen, Germany
Scienze Cognitive e Processi Decisionali, University of Milan, Via Bigli 11, 20121 Milan, Italy
Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Science, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, 33100 Udine, Italy
Center for Cultural Property Protection and Center for Architectural Heritage and Infrastructure, Danube University Krems, Dr.-Karl-Dorrek-Straße 30, 3500 Krems, Austria
Department of Taxonomy and Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Clinicilor Street 5–7, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Institute of Biology Bucharest, Romanian Academy, Spl. Independenței 296, 060031 Bucharest, Romania
Institute of Ecology and Botany, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Alkotmány u. 2–4, 2163 Vácrátót, Hungary
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5581;
Received: 23 August 2019 / Revised: 20 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
Hay-making structures are part of the agricultural landscape of meadows and pastures. Hay meadows are still used and found all over Europe, but their distribution patterns as well as their characteristics and regional features depend on geographical area, climate, culture, and intensity of agriculture. Intensively used hay meadows are the most dominant, using heavy machinery to store hay mostly as rounded or square bales. Traditional hay-making structures represent structures or constructions, used to quickly dry freshly cut fodder and to protect it from humidity. The ‘ancient’ forms of traditional hay-making structures are becoming a relic, due to mechanisation and the use of new technologies. Both the need for drying hay and the traditional methods for doing so were similar across Europe. Our study of hay-making structures focuses on their current state, their development and history, current use and cultural values in various European countries. Regarding the construction and use of hay-making structures, we have distinguished three different types, which correlate to natural and regional conditions: (1) temporary hay racks of various shapes; (2) hay barracks, a special type of shelters for storing hay and (3) different types of permanent construction and buildings for drying and storing hay. Hay-making structures have been mostly preserved in connection with traditional agricultural landscapes, and particularly in the more remote regions or where associated with strong cultural identity. View Full-Text
Keywords: hayrack; meadows; hay barrack; permanent construction; cultural landscape hayrack; meadows; hay barrack; permanent construction; cultural landscape
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MDPI and ACS Style

Špulerová, J.; Kruse, A.; Branduini, P.; Centeri, C.; Eiter, S.; Ferrario, V.; Gaillard, B.; Gusmeroli, F.; Jurgens, S.; Kladnik, D.; Renes, H.; Roth, M.; Sala, G.; Sickel, H.; Sigura, M.; Štefunková, D.; Stensgaard, K.; Strasser, P.; Ivascu, C.M.; Öllerer, K. Past, Present and Future of Hay-making Structures in Europe. Sustainability 2019, 11, 5581.

AMA Style

Špulerová J, Kruse A, Branduini P, Centeri C, Eiter S, Ferrario V, Gaillard B, Gusmeroli F, Jurgens S, Kladnik D, Renes H, Roth M, Sala G, Sickel H, Sigura M, Štefunková D, Stensgaard K, Strasser P, Ivascu CM, Öllerer K. Past, Present and Future of Hay-making Structures in Europe. Sustainability. 2019; 11(20):5581.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Špulerová, Jana, Alexandra Kruse, Paola Branduini, Csaba Centeri, Sebastian Eiter, Viviana Ferrario, Bénédicte Gaillard, Fausto Gusmeroli, Suzan Jurgens, Drago Kladnik, Hans Renes, Michael Roth, Giovanni Sala, Hanne Sickel, Maurizia Sigura, Dagmar Štefunková, Kari Stensgaard, Peter Strasser, Cosmin M. Ivascu, and Kinga Öllerer. 2019. "Past, Present and Future of Hay-making Structures in Europe" Sustainability 11, no. 20: 5581.

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