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Article

Traffic Simulation-Based Approach for A Cradle-to-Grave Greenhouse Gases Emission Model

1
Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via Vito Volterra 62, 00146 Rome, Italy
2
CIRIAF, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 67, 06125 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4328; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164328
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
This paper presents a model to evaluate the life cycle greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, expressed in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), of a generic fleet composition as a function of the traffic simulation results. First we evaluated the complete life cycle of each category of the vehicles currently circulating; next, by defining a general linear equation, the traffic environmental performances of a real road network (city of Rome) were evaluated using a traffic simulation approach. Finally, the proposed methodology was applied to evaluate the GHG emission of a 100% penetration of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and various electric and conventional vehicles composition scenarios. In terms of life cycle impacts, BEVs are the vehicles with the highest GHG emissions at the vehicle level (construction + maintenance + end-of-life processes) that are, on average, 20% higher than internal combustion engine vehicles, and 6.5% higher than hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Nevertheless, a 100% BEVs penetration scenario generates a reduction of the environmental impact at the mobility system level of about 65%. View Full-Text
Keywords: traffic emissions; traffic simulation; electric vehicles; greenhouse gases emissions; life cycle assessment traffic emissions; traffic simulation; electric vehicles; greenhouse gases emissions; life cycle assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Patella, S.M.; Scrucca, F.; Asdrubali, F.; Carrese, S. Traffic Simulation-Based Approach for A Cradle-to-Grave Greenhouse Gases Emission Model. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4328. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164328

AMA Style

Patella SM, Scrucca F, Asdrubali F, Carrese S. Traffic Simulation-Based Approach for A Cradle-to-Grave Greenhouse Gases Emission Model. Sustainability. 2019; 11(16):4328. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164328

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patella, Sergio Maria, Flavio Scrucca, Francesco Asdrubali, and Stefano Carrese. 2019. "Traffic Simulation-Based Approach for A Cradle-to-Grave Greenhouse Gases Emission Model" Sustainability 11, no. 16: 4328. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164328

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