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Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4310; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164310
2. Literature Review
3.1. Research Area
3.3. Passenger Transport CO2 Emissions Calculation
3.4. Decomposition Methodology
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. CO2 Emissions Calculation Results
4.2. CO2 Emissions Decomposition Results—A Comparison of Megacities and Other Cities
4.3. CO2 Emissions Decomposition Results for the Four Megacities
4.4. Policy Implications
5. Conclusions and Suggestions
- Urban passenger transport CO2 emissions in both megacities and other cities experienced decelerated growth and a reduction from 1960–2001. It peaked during the 1990s for most cities over the study period. High CO2 emissions cities are mainly distributed in the United States, such as New York, Los Angeles. European cities such as Copenhagen and Zurich have relatively low emissions.
- From 1960 to 1970, the contributions of the urbanization effect (Dp) and motorization effect (Dl) to passenger transport sector CO2 emissions growth in other cities were larger than those in megacities because urbanization and motorization processes in other cities were more rapid from 1960–1970. From 1960 to 1996, mode structure effect played a more important role in influencing CO2 emissions from the urban passenger transport in megacities than in other cities. From 1996 to 2001, the main inhibitory effects of CO2 emissions growth were mainly from the improvement of the public transport share and reduction in the trip distance per capita in both types of cities.
- Energy intensity effect was the main inhibitory factor of urban passenger CO2 emissions growth in megacities (London, Paris, New York, and Tokyo) from 1980–1990 because the government focused on improving the fuel economy of motor vehicles after the oil crisis. From 1970 to 1990, counter-urbanization led to longer trip distances and increased private transport shares, thereby promoting CO2 emissions growth in megacities.
- Rational land use, such as transit-oriented development, is a feasible way to make average travel distances shorter and decrease the motorization level.
- Fuel economy policies and standards formulated when oil prices are high are effective ways to suppress the increase of CO2 emissions from urban transport. These policies should not be abandoned when oil prices fall. Oil crises provide important opportunities for improving the fuel economy.
- Cities with high population densities should focus on the development of public and non-motorized transport. Some rules should be implemented to prevent the unlimited spread of cities and counter-urbanization.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Cities||Total CO2 Emissions (Tons)|
|Policy Categories||Policy Measures||Typical Urban Cases|
|Urbanization Measures||Controlling the urban population||Chinese mega cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen|
|Motorization Measures||Constructing facilities suitable for non-motorized transport||Bicycle transport network in Copenhagen; Broadway street project in New York|
|Increasing land mix||“Seine Rive Gauche” zone project in Paris; Hamm Lake City in Stockholm|
|Promoting telecommuting||Civil servant telecommuting in Korea|
|Mode Structure Measures||Constructing public transport facilities||Rail Transit Network in Tokyo|
|Controlling the number of license plates||License plate lottery in Beijing; License plate auction in Shanghai|
|Tax collection||Fuel tax in Britain; Carbon tax for cars in Europeans cities|
|Congestion charges||Congestion charges in London, Singapore and Stockholm|
|Parking management||Limiting parking spaces in Development Zone in London; Priority of vehicles with low-emissions in Los Angeles|
|Energy Intensity Measures||Fuel economy requirements||CAFÉ regulation in the United States; Top Runner Program in Japan; Fuel Consumption Limit of Passenger Vehicles in China|
|Management of scrap cars||Scrapping standards for cars in Korea; Compulsory Scrapping Standards for Vehicles in China|
|Energy Mix Measures||Constructing charging stations for electric vehicles||Constructing charging facilities in Tokyo and Shanghai|
|Subsidizing vehicles with low-emissions||Subsidizing to purchase electric vehicles in Los Angeles and China|
|Advocating shared electric vehicles||Shared Electric Autolib service in Paris; Shared Evcard Project in Shanghai|
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