Building a Framework to Understand the Energy Needs of Adaptation
2. Materials and Methods
- Are energy-intensive or relate to energy-intensive sectors
- Are a precondition for access to basic energy services
- Require access to energy in order to spread their benefits and reach targeted population
- Can save energy, directly or indirectly
- Potentially energy-increasing (E-I) options, whose diffusion will result in an increase in the use of energy, including renewable sources.
- Potentially energy-saving (E-S) options, whose implementation will decrease energy demand.
3.1. Evidence of Energy Use for Adaptation in the (I)NDCs
3.2. Evidence of How Adaptation Contributes to Sustainable Development
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
|Goals and Targets (from the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development)||Energy for Adaptation Options Identified in the Nationally Determined Contributions||Linkages Explained|
|SDG 1.||End poverty in all its forms everywhere|
|1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance||Rural electrification (RE), (Ren-based) Heating/cooling, (Ren-based) Water heating, (Ren-based) Water distribution (RWD), Water harvesting||Access to basic services is fundamental to human development. Rural electricity is recognized to be a key enabling factor for poverty reduction . Modern heating/cooling equipment, minimum and accessible water supply are among the basic comfort elements that ensure decent living standards . Rural electrification can have positive socio-economic impacts .|
|1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters||Medical services, Early warning systems (EWS), Building standards (BS), Energy efficiency (EE), Renewable energy (RES)||Development of EWS is a key adaptation response to prevent human and economic losses in case of extreme events. Improved public medical services as well as housing and living conditions help reduce the vulnerability and exposure of the poor to climate-related shocks and disasters . Energy efficiency measures reduce energy expenditure and thus contribute to reducing exposure and alleviating poverty . Efficient use of resources, renewable energy and access to modern energy can free up resources (both finance and time) that can otherwise be used in other productive activities (e.g., educational and employment opportunities) [28,60].|
|SDG 2.||End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture|
|2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round||Food storage (FS), Rural electrification, Renewable energy, Energy efficiency||Food storage and primary processing infrastructure can help reducing post-harvest losses, for example through improved electric-powered preservation (e.g., drying and smoking) and chilling/freezing. Overall, access to more efficient, cleaner, and more affordable energy options is an effective tool for combating extreme hunger by increasing food productivity and reducing post-harvest losses [60,61]. Along with food security, food storage contributes to increase safe and nutritious food access by all people [60,71].|
|2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment||Desalination, Irrigation, Water recycling and reuse, Multipurpose dams, Livestock||Improved irrigation and modern irrigation technologies help increase agricultural productivity  and therefore enhance food security . The use of safely treated wastewater has become a means of increasing water availability for irrigation . Practices to keep an adequate thermal comfort for livestock reduce the losses in meat and milk production due to animals’ vulnerability to increased heat stress and acclimation .|
|2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality||(Ren-based) Desalination, (Ren-based) Irrigation, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency||Clean energy technologies (e.g., wind and solar pumps) and water saving practices can improve the irrigation benefits and therefore contribute to increasing sustainable food production . Water efficient practices (e.g., supplemental irrigation, water harvesting, or shallow groundwater resources) are important for increasing water productivity in rainfed agriculture and reduce the carbon footprint of the agricultural sector .|
|SDG 3.||Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages|
|3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1000 live births||Food storage (FS), Livestock||Undernutrition contributes to the severity of a range of diseases, and is responsible for nearly half of total under-five deaths . By supporting food security and reducing undernutrition , food storage techniques contribute to preventing children mortality.|
|3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases||(Ren-based) Heating/Cooling, Medical services, Building standards (BS), Information and education||Adaptive measures to reduce health risk and diffusion of vector borne disease due to climate change include the implementation and enforcement of health care interventions (e.g., vaccination programs) and educational campaigns as well as the improved quality of residential conditions and health infrastructure (e.g., building insulation, cooling of health care facilities) [7,43].|
|3.4 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being||Building standards, Food storage||Emergency preparedness is considered an essential feature of modern buildings. When one's sense of security is threatened, their bodies elicit a cascade of biological fight-or-flight responses that alter their physical and psychological functioning .|
|3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents||Transport (TS)||Experiences in Europe, Latin America, and India show that well-planned and designed sustainable transport measures can play a significant role in improving road safety, as a benefit from restricted private car traffic and the promotion of more energy-efficient modes, such as public transport, cycling, and walking .|
|3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination||Rural electrification, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy, Building standards||Switching from traditional cooking methods and fuels to modern, cleaner and more efficient stoves or electricity reduce air pollution  and associated mortality and illnesses . Buildings characteristics affect health through several channels (water quality, indoor pollution, thermal comfort) .|
|Water recycling and reuse, (Ren-based) Water distribution, Renewable energy||Appropriate wastewater collection and treatment helps protect the water quality while significantly reducing the number of people exposed to water-related diseases . Expanding or improving water supply and distribution, including water pumping through renewable energy, helps ensure access to safe water . Water quality in buildings as well as disinfection systems affect health . Overall, modern forms of energy are proved to play an important role in improving access to safe water and sanitation .|
|3.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks||Early warning systems||EWSs integrate adaptation with sustainable development and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction .|
|SDG 4.||Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all|
|4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes||Rural electrification, Renewable energy||Access to modern forms of energy improves the quality and availability of educational services and increases the likelihood that children will attend and complete schooling (e.g., reducing the time that women and girls spend carrying fuel). In addition, rural electrification helps retain good teachers in rural areas, thus contributing to enhancing the quality of rural education .|
|4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations||Transport, (Ren-based) Water distribution||As women are more dependent on public transport than men, sustainable and accessible transport planning plays a crucial role in broadening women’s access to health and education services, employment, improving the exchange of information, and promoting social cohesion . Women spend far more time than men fetching water that, in the presence of renewable water distribution systems, can otherwise be spent in pursuit of education .|
|4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development||Information and education (I&E)||Explicitly mentioned in the SD goal and target .|
|4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all||Rural electrification + (Ren-based) Heating/cooling, (Ren-based) Water heating, (Ren-based) Water distribution + Building codes||Access to electricity and drinking water are explicitly mentioned in the SD target . Access to air conditioning positively affects children cognitive functions during heatwaves .|
|SDG 5.||Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls|
|5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation||Rural electrification||Rural electrification can play an important role in eliminating violence against women, as it leads to lower acceptance of intimate partner violence (IPV). It is especially access and higher exposure to information via TV sets that causes the difference in IPV acceptance .|
|(Ren-based) Water distribution, Water harvesting, Water conservation||Women and young girls often go out to collect fuel, fodder, and water for homes and, particularly in conflict or post conflict situations, this can present a threat to their security .|
|5.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate||(Ren-based) Water distribution, Renewable energy, Transport||The lack of access to improved water supply places a disproportionate burden on women and girls who tend to be the primary collectors of water for the family . Access to efficient cook stoves and modern forms of energy help alleviating the burden placed on women and children in fuel collection . The burden of women’s housework reduces as a result of improved public transport access .|
|5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life||Transport standards, Rural electrification||Poor access to transport limits women’s capacity to extend their economic enterprises, thereby reducing household income and overall national productivity . Access to modern energy services has the potential to empower women by improving their income-earning, entrepreneurial opportunities, autonomy, and reducing drudgery . Rural electrification increases female employment .|
|5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences||Rural electrification, Medical services||Women’s reproductive health is seen as benefiting from electrification, as women with access to TV, are more informed on many health messages, including reproductive health and contraceptive methods, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, and health checks for breast cancer and colon cancer .|
|5.b Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women||Rural electrification||Rural electrification facilitates access to technology. Electrification helps foster “connective” applications such as radio, television, information, cell phone .|
|SDG 6.||Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all|
|6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all||(Ren-based) Desalination, (Ren-based) Water distribution||Desalination contributes to alleviating fresh water scarcity problems and increasing the supply of drinking water . Expanding or improving water supply and distribution, including water pumping through renewable energy helps ensuring access to safe water .|
|6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations||Rural electrification, Renewable energy||Modern forms of energy are proved to play an important role in improving access to safe water and sanitation (solar water disinfection) .|
|6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally||Water recycling and reuse||Explicitly mentioned in the SD goal and/or target. Appropriate wastewater collection and treatment helps protect the water quality while significantly reducing the number of people exposed to water-related diseases .|
|6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity||Water conservation, Irrigation efficiency, Information and Education||Water efficiency and demand management practices include a variety of measures that include improving use efficiency through improved technologies (e.g., increased efficiency in irrigated agriculture, water metering) but also awareness raising and education campaigns .|
|Multipurpose dams, Water harvesting||Rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge as well as multipurpose dams help address water scarcity through water augmentation and storage .|
|SDG 7.||Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all|
|7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services||Rural electrification||Explicitly mentioned in the SD goal and target .|
|7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix||(Ren-based) Desalination, (Ren-based) Irrigation, (Ren-based) Water distribution, (Ren-based) Heating/cooling, (Ren-based) Water heating, Renewable energy||Explicitly mentioned in the SD goal and target .|
|7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency||Energy efficiency, Building standards, Transport systems/standards||Explicitly mentioned in the SD goal and target .|
|SDG 8.||Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all|
|8.2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labor-intensive sectors||Irrigation, (Ren-based) Irrigation, Renewable energy, Multi-purpose dams||Irrigation stimulates agricultural productivity and economic growth. Dam-based irrigation can have negative effects where dams are placed, but they can have positive impacts on poverty and wages in downstream villages .|
|8.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services||Rural electrification, Information and education||Cleaner energy options can enhance working conditions and open opportunities to generate livelihoods, increase the number of jobs, and provide decent work. Access to affordable energy options from gaseous and liquid fuels and electricity can assist enterprise development . The digital revolution facilitates access to information and can have positive impacts on economic growth, but it needs to come along with good institutions and human capital .|
|8.4 Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavor to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production, with developed countries taking the lead||Rural electrification, Energy efficiency, Water conservation, Building standards||Energy efficiency and water conservation have the potential to improve global resource efficiency. Building rating systems (RSs) have initially been developed to promote the reduction of energy and water use and waste .|
|8.8 Protect labor rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment||(Ren-based) Heating/Cooling||Investments in heating and cooling equipment represent an option for firms to adapt to the negative impact that temperature shocks may have on workers .|
|SDG 9.||Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation|
|9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all||Rural electrification, (Ren-based) Desalination, Multipurpose dams, Irrigation, (Ren-based) Irrigation, Irrigation Efficiency, Transport||According to the UN’s definition, infrastructure includes transport, irrigation, energy and information, and communication technology . Here are considered options that support this infrastructure resilience and deployment.|
|Transport||Explicitly mentioned in the SD goal and target .|
|9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries||Rural electrification, Renewable energy, Energy efficiency||Rural electrification contributes to industrial development and GDP increase [68,87]. Diversification of energy sources and energy efficiency can help reduce energy costs .|
|9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets||Rural electrification, Renewable energy|
|9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities||Building standards + Energy efficiency, Rural electrification||Mentioned in the SD goal and target .|
|9.c Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020||Rural electrification||Solar electrification helps foster connective applications such as radio, television, information, cell phone .|
|SDG 10.||Reduce inequality within and among countries|
|10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population at a rate higher than the national average||Energy efficiency, Renewable energy, Rural electrification, (Ren-based) Water distribution, Water conservation, Water harvesting||Efficient use of resources, renewable energy, and access to modern energy can free up resources (both finance and time) that can be used for other productive activities (e.g., educational and employment opportunities) [28,60].|
|10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status||Renewable energy||Decentralized renewable energy systems (e.g., home- or village-scale solar power) can enable a more participatory, democratic process for managing energy-related decisions within communities .|
|10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard||Renewable energy, Transport||Sustainable public transport options play a crucial role in broadening access to basic services and job opportunities as well as promoting social cohesion . Decentralized renewable energy systems (e.g., home- or village-scale solar power) can enable a more participatory, democratic process for managing energy-related decisions within communities .|
|SDG 11.||Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable|
|11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums||(Ren-based) Heating/cooling, (Ren-Based) Water heating, Rural electrification, Building standards, (Ren-based) Water distribution||Safe and basic housing services imply access to modern forms of energy, durable and resilient homes which, at the community level, require infrastructure such as electricity and water distribution . Modern heating/cooling equipment, minimum and accessible water supply are among the basic comfort elements that ensure decent living standards .|
|11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons||Transport||Explicitly mentioned in the SD goal and target. Urban centers rely on transport for their daily functioning. A resilient public transportation system is essential to ensure access to goods and services, as well as employment, production, and livelihoods opportunities, and is critical for effective disaster response .|
|11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries||Building standards|
|11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations||Medical services||Direct economic costs include non-market impacts on health-morbidity and mortality. Improved hospital and infrastructure for medical services, as well as a more extended network of health centers contribute to resilience, by allowing a quicker and more effective making response in case of emergency .|
|Multipurpose dams||Multipurpose dams can contribute to flood control, reducing water-related disasters .|
|11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management||Transport systems + water recycling and reuse, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy + rural electrification||The climate imperatives to deploy more efficient technologies and to reduce reliance on energy from fuel combustion—including electrification of end-uses—have co-benefits in terms of reduced pollution. Policies that stimulate energy efficiency reduce local air pollutants [88,89]. Regulatory regimes, in particular vehicle standards regimes, contribute to reduce the health impact of road transport pollution .|
|11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels||Early warning systems, Information and education||EWS, I&E are key strategies to address disaster risk, and belong to those strategies that contribute to the Sendai Framework. Examples of knowledge sharing activities and implementation of early warning system, and how they contribute to risk reduction, are described in .|
|SDG 12.||Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns|
|12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources||Water conservation, Water harvesting, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy||Renewable and energy efficiency can reduce pressure on natural resources, as access to modern forms of energy means less disturbance for local biodiversity and lower reliance on wood and other natural resources (e.g., forest). Recycling activities—including wastewater treatment and reuse—contribute to reducing pressure on natural resources such as fresh water .|
|12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses||Food storage||During the crop transition from farm to consumer, crops undergo several operations-harvesting, threshing, cleaning, drying, storage, processing, and transportation. Storage plays a vital role in the food supply chain, and several studies reported that maximum losses happen during this operation. [54,55,91].|
|12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment||Water recycling and reuse||Appropriate wastewater collection and treatment helps protect the water quality while significantly reducing the number of people exposed to water-related diseases .|
|12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature||Information and education||Explicitly mentioned in the SD target .|
|SDG 14.||Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development|
|14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution||Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency Information and education||Measures that restrict overuse and pollution of water at its source, or improve water treatment capacity, contribute to the reduction of water bodies’ pollution. Improving farmer knowledge on sustainable agricultural practices helps avoid nutrient excess dosages, and therefore leakage . Overall, awareness-raising campaigns are an effective way of reducing marine debris |
|14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans||Water conservation|
|14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels||Renewable energy, Energy efficiency||Emission reduction induced by the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency practices reduces global emissions and slows down ocean acidification rates [28,71].|
|SDG 15.||Protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss|
|15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements||Rural electrification, Energy efficiency||Access to modern energy services and energy efficiency reduce the need to rely on firewood taken from forests and hence contribute to halting deforestation [28,60,71].|
|15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world||Water harvesting including groundwater recharge, Water conservation & improved water use efficiency (including water metering), Irrigation efficiency||Water harvesting, water conservation, and improved efficiency are all options that contribute to reduce water needs. Measures aimed at improving water use efficiency can also lead to benefits in terms of improved soil moisture retention capacity . Irrigation efficiency can also be improved through altering farming practices and conservation tillage that help improve soil moisture conservation .|
|SDG 16.||Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels|
|16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere||Water conservation, Water harvesting, Multi-purpose dams, Irrigation, (Ren-based) Irrigation, Irrigation efficiency||Water availability, and therefore all options that increase water supply, as well as agriculture dependency (agriculture output as a share of GDP) increase the likelihood of occurrence of hydro-political interactions defined as either conflicts or cooperation .|
|Rural electrification||At the community level, access to electricity can have benefits for education, health and water supply. Street lighting, which increases safety, is also a benefit of electricity access at the community level |
|16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms||Renewable energy, Energy efficiency||Renewable energy, by reducing reliance on oil and oil rent, can contribute to reducing the corruption associated with oil-rent-seeking activities. The empirical evidence suggests that non-oil natural resources, which management is more apparent to the public, are less prone to corruption .|
|SDG 17.||Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development Finance|
|17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favorable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed||Renewable energy, Energy efficiency||Evidence from CDM projects shows the significant potential of technology transfer associated with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power and measures to improve energy efficiency at the household level or in services .|
|17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology||Rural electrification||10% of world electricity consumption is dedicated to ICTs and one cannot access the internet without electricity. Expanding access to energy and to the Internet can be done concurrently. Studies show that solar electrification plays an important role in fostering “connective” applications such as radio, television, information, cell phone .|
- UNFCCC. Decision 1/CP.21. Adoption of the Paris Agreement. In Proceedings of the Paris Climate Change Conference, Paris, France, 30 November–13 December 2015. [Google Scholar]
- De Cian, E.; Hof, A.F.; Marangoni, G.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D.P. Alleviating inequality i n climate policy costs: An integrated perspective on mitigation, damage and adaptation. Environ. Res. Lett. 2016, 11, 74015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Park, C.; Fujimori, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Takakura, J.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y. Avoided economic impacts of energy demand changes by 1.5 and 2 °C climate stabilization. Environ. Res. Lett. 2018, 13, 045010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Burke, M.; Hsiang, S.; Miguel, E. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Nature 2015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Field, C.B.; Barros, V.R.; Mach, K.J.; Mastrandrea, M.D.; van Aalst, M.; Adger, W.N.; Arent, D.J.; Barnett, J.; Betts, R.; Bilir, T.E.; et al. Technical Summary. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability; Field, C.B., Barros, V.R., Dokken, D.J., Mach, K.J., Mastrandrea, M.D., Bilir, T.E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K.L., Estrada, Y.O., Genova, R.C., et al., Eds.; Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2014; pp. 35–94. [Google Scholar]
- Schelling, T.C. Some economics of global warming. Am. Econ. Rev. 1992, 82, 1–14. [Google Scholar]
- Smit, B.; Pilifosova, O.; Burton, I.; Challenger, B.; Huq, S.; Klein, R.J.T.; Yohe, G.; Adger, N.; Downing, T.; Harvey, E.; et al. Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of sustainable Development and Equity. In Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2001; pp. 877–912. [Google Scholar]
- McGray, H.; Hammill, A.; Bradley, R.; Schipper, E.L.; Parry, J.-E. Weathering the Storm. Options for Framing Adaptation and Development; World Resource Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Tol, R.S.J. The Economic Impacts of Climate Change. Rev. Environ. Econ. Policy 2018, 12, 4–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Fell, M.J. Energy services: A conceptual review. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 2017, 27, 129–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Deschenes, O.; Greenstone, M. Climate change, mortality, and adaptation: Evidence from annual fluctuations in weather in the US. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 2011, 3, 152–185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dell, M.; Jones, B.F.; Olken, B.A. What do we learn from the weather? The New Climate–Economy Literature. J. Econ. Lit. 2014, 52, 740–798. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barreca, A.; Clay, K.; Deschenes, O.; Greenstone, M.; Shapiro, J.S. Adapting to Climate Change: The Remarkable Decline in the US Temperature-Mortality Relationship over the Twentieth Century. J. Polit. Econ. 2016, 124, 105–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Hsiang, S.M. Temperatures and cyclones strongly associated with economic production in the Caribbean and Central America. PNAS 2010, 107, 15367–15372. Available online: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/35/15367 (accessed on 13 July 2018).[Green Version]
- Park, J.; Behrer, P. Will We Adapt? Temperature Shocks, Labor and Adaptation to Climate Change; Harvard Project on Climate Agreements Working Papers; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Hekkenberg, M.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.; Uiterkamp, A.J.M.S. Indications for a changing electricity demand pattern: The temperature dependence of electricity demand in the Netherlands. Energy Policy 2009, 37, 1542–1551. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WHO. Innovative Passive Cooling Options for Vaccines; WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- IEA. The Future of Cooling. Opportunities for Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning; IEA: Paris, France, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Rothausen SG, S.A.; Conway, D. Greenhouse-gas emissions from energy use in the water sector. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2011, 1. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sanders, K.T.; Webber, M.E. Evaluating the energy consumed for water use in the United States. Environ. Res. Lett. 2012, 7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Scott, M.J.; Huang, Y.J. Effects of climate change on energy use in the United States. In Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use in the United States; Wilbanks, T., Bhatt, V., Bilello, D., Bull, S., Ekmann, J., Horak, W., Huang, Y.J., Levine, M.D., Sale, M.J., Schmalzer, D., et al., Eds.; A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research; US Department of Energy: Washington, DC, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Shoeb, M.A.; Shafiullah, G.M. Renewable Energy Integrated Islanded Microgrid for Sustainable Irrigation—A Bangladesh Perspective. Energies 2018, 11, 1283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Cian, E.; Sue Wing, I. Global Energy Consumption in a Warming Climate. Environ. Res. Econ. 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rao, N.D.; Baer, P. ‘Decent Living’ emissions: A conceptual framework. Sustainability 2012, 4, 656–681. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rao, N.D.; Min, J. Decent Living Standards: Material Prerequisites for Human Wellbeing. Soc. Indic. Res. 2018, 138, 225–244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Rao, N.D.; Pachauri, S. Energy access and living standards: Some observations on recent trends. Environ. Res. Lett. 2017, 12, 1–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Clarke, L.; Jiang, K.; Akimoto, K.; Babiker, M.; Blanford, G.; Fisher-Vanden, K.; Hourcade, J.-C.; Krey, V.; Kriegler, E.; Löschel, A.; et al. 2014: Assessing Transformation Pathways. In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Edenhofer, O., Pichs-Madruga, R., Sokona, Y., Farahani, E., Kadner, S., Seyboth, K., Adler, A., Baum, I., Brunner, S., Eickemeier, P., et al., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- McCollum, D.; Echeverri, L.G.; Busch, S.; Pachauri, S.; Parkinson, S.; Rogelj, J.; Krey, V.; Minx, J.C.; Nilsson, M.; Stevance, A.; et al. Connecting the Sustainable Development Goals by their energy 1 inter-linkages. Environ. Res. Lett. 2018, 13, 033006. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fuso Nerini, F.; Tomei, J.; Seng To, L.; Bisaga, I.; Parikh, P.; Black, M.; Borrion, A.; Spataru, C.; Castán Broto, V.; Anandarajah, G.; et al. Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the Sustainable Development Goals. Nat. Energy 2018, 3, 10–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Santikaa, W.G.; Anisuzzamana, M.; Bahria, P.A.; Shafiullaha, G.M.; Rupfa, G.V.; Urmeea, T. From goals to joules: A quantitative approach of interlinkages between energy and the Sustainable Development Goals. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 2019, 50, 201–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ebinger, J.; Vergara, W. Climate Impacts on Energy Systems: Key Issues for Energy Sector Adaptation; World Bank and ESMAP Studies: Washington, DC, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mastrucci, A.; Byers, E.; Pachauri, S.; Rao, N.D. Improving the SDG energy poverty targets: Residential cooling needs in the Global South. Energy Build. 2019, 186, 405–415. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Roy, J.; Tschakert, P.; Waisman, H.; Halim, S.A.; Antwi-Agyei, P.; Dasgupta, P.; Hayward, B.; Kanninen, M.; Liverman, D.; Okereke, C.; et al. Sustainable Development, Poverty Eradication and Reducing Inequalities. In Global Warming of 1.5 °C; Masson-Delmotte, V., Zhai, P., Pörtner, H.-O., Roberts, D., Skea, J., Shukla, P.R., Pirani, A., Moufouma-Okia, W., Péan, C., Pidcock, R., et al., Eds.; An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5 °C above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2018; in Press. [Google Scholar]
- Riahai, K.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Kriegler, E.; Edmonds, J.; O’Neill, B.C.; Fujimori, S.; Bauer, N.; Calvin, K.; Dellink, R.; Fricko, O. The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways and their energy, land use, and greenhouse gas emissions implications: An overview. Glob. Environ. Chang. 2017, 42, 153–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL), Chilling Prospects: Providing Sustainable Cooling for All. 2018. Available online: https://www.seforall.org/interventions/cooling-for-all/chilling-prospects (accessed on 31 August 2018).
- Hallegatte, S.; Hourcade, J.C.; Ambrosi, P. Using climate analogues for assessing climate change economic impacts in urban areas. Clim. Chang. 2007, 82, 47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Keohane, R.; Victor, D.G. Cooperation and discord in global climate policy. Nat. Clim. Change Perspect. 2016, 6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lesnikowski, A.; Ford, J.; Biesbroek, R.; Berrang-Ford, L.; Maillet, M.; Araos, M.; Austin, S.E. What does the Paris Agreement mean for adaptation? Clim. Policy 2016. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rossi, R.; Miola, A. Adaptation measures in Intended Nationally Determined Contributions from Small Island Developing States and Least Developed Countries; Technical report by the Joint Research Centre (JRC); European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Magnan, A.K.; Ribera, T. Global adaptation after Paris. Science 2016, 352, 1280–1282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- UNFCCC. Interim NDC Registry. 2018. Available online: https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/NDCStaging/Pages/Home.aspx (accessed on 27 July 2018).
- UNFCCC. INDCs as Communicated by Parties. 2018. Available online: https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/submissions/INDC/Submission%20Pages/submissions.aspx (accessed on 27 July 2018).
- Smith, K.R.; Woodward, A.; Campbell-Lendrum, D.; Chadee, D.D.; Honda, Y.; Liu, Q.; Olwoch, J.M.; Revich, B.; Sauerborn, R. Human health: Impacts, adaptation, and co-benefits. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability; Field, C.B., Barros, V.R., Dokken, D.J., Mach, K.J., Mastrandrea, M.D., Bilir, T.E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K.L., Estrada, Y.O., Genova, R.C., et al., Eds.; Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2014; pp. 709–754. Available online: https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg2/WGIIAR5-Chap11_FINAL.pdf (accessed on 11 July 2018).
- Bertule, M.; Appelquist, L.R.; Spensley, J.; Trærup, S.L.M.; Naswa, P. Climate Change Adaptation Technologies for Water. A Practitioner’s Guide to Adaptation Technologies for Increased Water Sector Resilience; UN Environment, CTCN, UNEP DTU Partnership; UN: Brussels, Belgium, 2018; Available online: https://www.ctc-n.org/resources/climate-change-adaptation-technologies-water-practitioner-s-guide-adaptation-technologies (accessed on 15 June 2018).
- Bouwer, L.; Capriolo, A.; Chiabai, A.; Foudi, S.; Garrote, L.; Harmáčková, Z.V.; Iglesias, A.; Jeuken, A.; Olazabal, M.; Spadaro, J. Upscaling the Impacts of Climate Change in Different Sectors and Adaptation Strategies. In Adapting to Climate Change in Europe. Exploring Sustainable Pathways from Local Measures to Wider Policies; Sanderson, H., Hildén, M., Russel, D., Penha-Lopes, G., Capriolo, A., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Oxford, UK; Cambridge, MA, USA, 2018; pp. 173–243. [Google Scholar]
- UNFCCC. Opportunities and Options for Integrating Climate Change Adaptation with the Sustainable Development Goals and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015–2030); United Nations Climate Change Secretariat: Bonn, Germany, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- European Union Energy Initiative Partnership Dialogue Facility (EUEI PDF). Energy and Climate Change Adaptation in Developing Countries; European Union Energy Initiative Partnership Dialogue Facility: Eschborn, Germany, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Barnett, J.; O’Neill, S. Maladaptation. Glob. Environ. Chang. 2010, 20, 211–213. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- IRENA. Water Desalination Using Renewable Energy—Technology Brief. I12; IEA-ETSAP and IRENA: Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2012; Available online: https://iea-etsap.org/E-TechDS/PDF/I12IR_Desalin_MI_Jan2013_final_GSOK.pdf (accessed on 15 June 2018).
- IRENA. Solar Pumping for Irrigation: Improving Livelihoods and Sustainability; IRENA: Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2016; Available online: http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_Solar_Pumping_for_Irrigation_2016.pdf (accessed on 15 June 2018).
- Revi, A.; Satterthwaite, D.E.; Aragón-Durand, F.; Corfee-Morlot, J.; Kiunsi, R.B.R.; Pelling, M.; Roberts, D.C.; Solecki, W. Urban Areas. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Field, C.B., Barros, V.R., Dokken, D.J., Mach, K.J., Mastrandrea, M.D., Bilir, T.E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K.L., Estrada, Y.O., Genova, R.C., et al., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2014; pp. 535–612. [Google Scholar]
- IRENA. Solar Heating and Cooling for Residential Applications—Technology Brief. R12; IEA-ETSAP and IRENA: Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2015; Available online: http://www.irena.org/documentdownloads/publications/irena_etsap_tech_brief_r12_solar_thermal_residential_2015.pdf (accessed on 19 June 2018).
- Shaikh, P.; Nor, N.; Nallagownden, P.; Elamvazuthi, I.; Ibrahim, T. A review on optimized control systems for building energy and comfort management of smart sustainable buildings. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2014, 34, 409–429. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Abass, A.B.; Ndunguru, G.; Mamiro, P.; Alenkhe, B.; Mlingi, N.; Bekunda, M. Post-harvest food losses in a maize-based farming system of semi-arid savannah area of Tanzania. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2014, 57, 49–57. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kumar, D.; Kalita, P. Reducing Postharvest Losses during Storage of Grain Crops to Strengthen Food Security in Developing Countries. Foods 2017, 6, 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Noble, I.R.; Huq, S.; Anokhin, Y.A.; Carmin, J.; Goudou, D.; Lansigan, F.P.; Osman-Elasha, B.; Villamizar, A. 2014: Adaptation Needs and Options. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability; Field, C.B., Barros, V.R., Dokken, D.J., Mach, K.J., Mastrandrea, M.D., Bilir, T.E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K.L., Estrada, Y.O., Genova, R.C., et al., Eds.; Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2014; pp. 833–868. [Google Scholar]
- Denton, F.; Wilbanks, T.J.; Abeysinghe, A.C.; Burton, I.; Gao, Q.; Lemos, M.C.; Masui, T.; O’Brien, K.L.; Warner, K. 2014: Climate-resilient pathways: Adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable development. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability; Field, C.B., Barros, V.R., Dokken, D.J., Mach, K.J., Mastrandrea, M.D., Bilir, T.E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K.L., Estrada, Y.O., Genova, R.C., et al., Eds.; Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2014; pp. 1101–1131. [Google Scholar]
- Murphy, B.; Corbyn, D. Energy and Adaptation—Exploring How Energy Access Can Enable Climate Change Adaptation; Practical Action Consulting: Rugby, UK, 2013; 20p. [Google Scholar]
- Tall, A.; Coulibaly, J.Y.; Diop, M. Do climate services make a difference? A review of evaluation methodologies and practices to assess the value of climate information services for farmers: Implications for Africa. Clim. Serv. 2018. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Karekezi, S.; McDade, S.; Boardman, B.; Kimani, J. Chapter 2—Energy, Poverty and Development. In Global Energy Assessment—Toward a Sustainable Future; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis: Laxenburg, Austria, 2012; pp. 151–190. [Google Scholar]
- FAO. The State of Food and Agriculture; Food and Agriculture Organization: Rome, Italy, 2016; Available online: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6030e.pdf (accessed on 27 June 2018).
- Cedeño-Laurent, J.G.; Williams, A.; MacNaughton, P.; Cao, X.; Eitland, E.; Spengler, J.; Allen, J. Building Evidence for Health: Green Buildings, Current Science, and Future Challenges. Ann. Rev. Public Health 2018, 39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Van Ruijven, B.J.; Schers, J.; van Vuuren, D.P. Model-based scenarios for rural electrification in developing countries. Energy 2012, 38, 386–397. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Pachauri, S. Household electricity access a trivial contributor to CO2 emissions growth in India. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2014, 4, 1073–1076. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hasegawa, T.; Park, C.; Fujimori, S.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y.; Masui, T. Quantifying the Economic Impact of Changes in Energy Demand for Space Heating and Cooling Systems Under Varying Climatic Scenarios. Palgrave Commun. 2016, 2, 2016. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McCollum, D.L.; Zhou, W.; Bertram, C.; de Boer, H.; Bosetti, V.; Busch, S.; Després, J.; Drouet, L.; Emmerling, J.; Fay, M.; et al. Energy investment needs for fulfilling the Paris Agreement and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Nat. Energy 2018, 3, 589–599. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Iyer, G.; Calvin, K.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.; Hultman, N.; Hartin, C.; McJeon, H.; Aldy, J.; Pizer, W. Implications of sustainable development considerations for comparability across nationally determined contributions. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2018, 8, 124–129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Estache, A. A Survey of Impact Evaluations of Infrastructure Projects, Programs and Policies; ULB—Universite Libre de Bruxelles: Brussels, Belgium, 2010; Available online: https://ideas.repec.org/p/eca/wpaper/2010_005.html (accessed on 19 July 2018).
- UNFCCC. Climate Change: Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Adaptation in Developing Countries; UNFCCC: Bonn, Germany, 2007; Available online: https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/publications/impacts.pdf (accessed on 26 July 2019).
- Gomez-Paredes, J.; Yamasue, E.; Okumura, H.; Ishihara, K.N. Energy efficiency to reduce poverty and emissions: A silver bullet or wishful thinking? Analysis of efficient lighting CDM projects in India. Procedia Environ. Sci. 2013, 17, 547–556. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Grubler, A.; Wilson, C.; Bento, N.; Boza-Kiss, B.; Krey, V.; McCollum, D.; Rao, N.; Riahi, K.; Joeri, R.; De Stercke, S.; et al. A low energy demand scenario for meeting the 1.5 °C target and sustainable development goals without negative emission technologies. Nat. Energy 2018, 3, 517–525. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Duflo, E.; Pande, R. Dams. Q. J. Econ. 2007, 122, 601–646. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme). Wastewater: The Untapped Resource; The United Nations World Development Report 2017: Water and Energy; WWAP: Paris, France; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO: Paris, France, 2017; Available online: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/wwap/wwdr/2017-wastewater-the-untapped-resource/ (accessed on 18 July 2018).
- UNICEF. 2015 Annual Report; United Nations Children’s Fund: New York, NY, USA, 2015; Available online: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/UNICEF_Annual_Report_2015_En.pdf (accessed on 18 July 2018).
- Duduta, N.; Adriazola, C.; Hidalgo, D. Saving Lives with Sustainable Transport: Traffic Safety Impacts of Sustainable Transport Policies; World Resources Institute, EMBARQ: Washington, DC, USA, 2013; pp. 1–36. Available online: http://www.embarq.org/publication/saving-lives-sustainable-transport (accessed on 26 July 2018).
- Cedeño Laurent, J.G.; Williams, A.; Oulhote, Y.; Zanobetti, A.; Allen, J.G.; Spengler, J.D. Reduced cognitive function during a heat wave among residents of non-air-conditioned buildings: An observational study of young adults in the summer of 2016. PLOS Med. 2018, 15, e1002605. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UN. Report to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Executive Committee on the Implementation of the Priorities of the UNECE Reform for Strengthening Some Activities of the Committee; United Nations Economic and Social Council: New York, NY, USA, 2008; Available online: https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2009/itc/ECE-TRANS-2009-07e.pdf (accessed on 26 July 2018).
- UNGA. Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015; United Nations General Assembly: New York, NY, USA, 2015; Available online: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_70_1_E.pdf (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Sievert, M. Rural Electrification and Domestic Violence in Sub–Saharan Africa; Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB): Bochum, Germany, 2015; Available online: http://www.rwi-essen.de/media/content/pages/publikationen/ruhr-economic-papers/rep_15_570.pdf (accessed on 23 July 2018).
- Huyer, S. Gender Equality in National Climate Action: Planning for Gender-Responsive Nationally Determined Contributions; United Nations Development Programme: New York, NY, USA, 2016; Available online: http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/womens-empowerment/gender-equality-in-national-climate-action--planning-for-gender-.html (accessed on 23 July 2018).
- UNDP. Climate Change Adaptation: Impact Gender—Time Poverty. 2018. Available online: http://adaptation-undp.org/Impact2/topics/time.html#slide2 (accessed on 19 July 2018).
- ADB—Asian Development Bank. Balancing the Burden? Desk Review of Women’s Time Poverty and Infrastructure in Asia and the Pacific; Asian Development Bank: Mandaluyong City, PA, USA, 2015; Available online: https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/177465/sdcc-balancing-burden.pdf (accessed on 19 July 2018).
- Duchène, C. Gender and Transport; OECD/International Transport Forum: Paris, France, 2011; Available online: https://www.itf-oecd.org/sites/default/files/docs/dp201111.pdf (accessed on 25 July 2018).
- Cecelski, E. Enabling Equitable Access to Rural Electrification: Current Thinking on Energy, Poverty, and Gender; World Bank: New York, NY, USA, 2003; Available online: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/850681468328564938/pdf/345310Equitable0electrification0access.pdf (accessed on 25 July 2018).
- Jacobson, A. Connective Power: Solar Electrification and Social Change in Kenya. World Dev. 2007, 35, 144–162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Bank. Digital Dividends; The World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2016; Available online: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/896971468194972881/pdf/102725-PUB-Replacement-PUBLIC.pdf (accessed on 25 July 2018).
- Rud, J. Electricity provision and industrial development: Evidence from India. J. Dev. Econ. 2012, 97, 352–367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- OECD/IEA. World Energy Outlook 2017; OECD/IEA: Paris, France, 2017; Available online: https://www.iea.org/weo2017/ (accessed on 25 July 2018).
- OECD. The Economic Consequences of Outdoor Air Pollution; OECD Publishing: Paris, France, 2016. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- OECD. The Cost of Air Pollution: Health Impacts of Road Transport; OECD Publishing: Paris, France, 2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Bank. Missing Food: The Case of Post-harvest Grain Losses in Sub-Saharan Africa; Economic Sector Work Report No. 60371-AFR; World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Willis, K.; Maureaud, C.; Wilcox, C.; Hardesty, B.D. How successful are waste abatement campaigns and government policies at reducing plastic waste into the marine environment? Marine Policy 2018, 96, 243–249. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Farinosi, F.; Giupponi, C.; Reynaud, A.; Ceccherini, G.; Carmona-Moreno, C.; de Roo, A.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, D.; Bidoglioa, G. An innovative approach to the assessment of hydro-political risk: A spatially explicit, data driven indicator of hydro-political issues. Glob. Environ. Chang. 2018. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Okada, K.; Samreth, S. Corruption and natural resource rents: Evidence from quantile regression. Appl. Econ. Lett. 2017, 24, 1490–1493. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dechezleprêtre, A.; Glachant, M.; Ménière, Y. The Clean Development Mechanism and the international diffusion of technologies: An empirical study. Energy Policy 2008, 36, 1273–1283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
|Sector||Adaptation Option||Description and Supporting Literature||Examples from (I)NDCs *|
|Water||Desalination||Removing salt from sea or brackish water can increase water supply [44,48]. Renewable-based technologies have a growing potential for this type of energy-intensive water treatment .||SINGAPORE: Expand desalination capacity to meet up to 80% of its water demand in 2060. ANTIGUA&BARBUDA: Increase seawater desalination capacity by 50% above 2015 levels by 2050. TUNISIA: Install mini seawater desalination plants using renewable energies in the tourist sector.|
|Irrigation||Expanding equipped but not irrigated land as well as developing new irrigation projects [31,45] can reduce crop vulnerability. Large-scale deployment of solar pumps can support renewable-based irrigation .||ZAMBIA: Introduce water technologies for irrigation. MALAWI: Increase irrigation at smallholder level and increase the land area under irrigation. UGANDA: Expand the use of off-grid solar systems to support value addition and irrigation.|
|Water distribution||Expanding or improving water supply and distribution, including water pumping can increase water supply and reduce losses. Given the high energy-intensity of this option, the use of renewable energy reduces the risk of maladaptation [20,45].||ANTIGUA&BARBUDA: 100% of electricity demand in the water sector through off-grid renewable sources. UGANDA: Extend electricity or expand use of off-grid solar system to support water supply. GAMBIA: Use of renewable energy for lifting water from wells and boreholes.|
|Water conservation & improved efficiency||Implementing (i) agricultural practices that reduce water requirements; (ii) institutional changes that favor water-saving behaviors (e.g., water metering, changes in water charging and trade); (iii) improved water resource management and efficiency in industry and distribution [44,45] can reduce water needs, while keeping the same services.||JORDAN: Introduce water metering. IRAQ: Water use efficiency in distribution network and water consumption meters. SWAZILAND: Reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change through integrated water resource management.|
|Water recycling and reuse||Implementing technologies to collect, reuse, and treat wastewater can increase water supply for non-drinkable uses, such as irrigation and industrial usages, as well as for domestic use [44,45].||TOGO: Reuse of wastewater. SINGAPORE: Use advanced membrane technologies to purify reclaimed, treated water, making water safe to drink. SWAZILAND: Water recycling and reuse.|
|Water harvesting and groundwater recharge||Collecting and storing rainwater, artificially recharging groundwater aquifers, as well as implementing large-scale or small-scale water reservoirs on farmland can increase water supply and storage [44,45].||JORDAN: Maintenance of old Romanian wells for water harvesting purposes and establishment of new wells in the rural area. MOROCCO: Artificial replenishment of groundwater tables. LEBANON: Artificial recharge of groundwater aquifers and increasing surface storage.|
|Efficiency in irrigation||Implementing water saving irrigation techniques (e.g., modern pressurized irrigation systems, micro-irrigation, wetting and drying practice) can reduce water and energy demand while keeping agricultural productivity [44,45].||CHINA: Develop water-saving agricultural irrigation. JORDAN: Introduce water saving technologies such as drip, micro-spray, and night irrigation. TOGO: Build and/or improve reservoirs for micro-irrigation and livestock watering in rural areas throughout all regions.|
|Living Conditions||Heating/cooling||Expanding space heating and cooling can increase resilience of the built environment [31,36,51]. Renewable-based heating and cooling have a large potential in several countries . Smart building management systems can decrease vulnerability of energy infrastructure during peak electricity demand and increase occupants‘ wellbeing [18,53].||JORDAN: Expand the use of solar cooling in commercial and industrial facilities. MOLDOVA: Research on technologies and practices that save cooling energy and reduce electrical peak load. LESOTHO: Diffuse the use of efficient biomass space heating stoves.|
|Water heating||Expanding water heating can increase resilience of the built environment . Solar water heating has a large potential in many countries [31,52].||BANGLADESH: Expand Solar Homes Program. URUGUAY: Use of solar collectors for domestic hot water in large users, industrial and residential users. SEYCHELLES: Promote the use of solar water heating and cogeneration for hot water in hotels.|
|Building standards||Implementing building codes, upgrading informal settlements, and retrofitting existing housing stock can reduce vulnerability of settlements and support mitigation [31,36,51].||MALAWI: Develop and implement climate related building codes to account for climate change. ANTIGUA&BARBUDA: By 2020, update the Building Code to meet projected impacts of climate change. URUGUAY: Green Seal Certification to achieve a more resilient performance of buildings, through appropriate design and materials.|
|Food||Livestock||Expanding heating and cooling services can increase the resilience of livestock and mitigate their vulnerability to water scarcity, drought, and extreme events .||MEXICO: Strengthen thermal comfort for livestock. JORDAN: Promote renewable energy in agricultural and food production for cooling and heating purposes (poultry production). MOLDOVA: Improve ventilation and air conditioning systems in livestock farms.|
|Food storage||Building and upgrading storage facilities and processes can reduce post-harvest losses happening during the storage phase [54,55].||ETHIOPIA: Implement methods that prevent deterioration of food and feed in storage facilities. UGANDA: Expand post-harvest handling and storage. GAMBIA: Post harvest and food processing and preservation techniques.|
|Health||Medical services||Improving hospitals and infrastructure for medical services, expanding the network of health centers can increase the supply of the essential health services needed to reduce vulnerability of the health sector .||MALAWI: Construct more health centers in order to improve access to health facilities within a walking distance. SUDAN: Improve community sanitation and medical services, including capacities for diagnosis and treatment. SOUTH SUDAN: Public health systems strengthened by building hospitals.|
|Early warning systems||Developing early warning systems can prevent human and economic losses in case of extreme events. Benefits can significantly exceed the costs, resulting in potentially large health benefits at low cost [45,57].||JORDAN: EWS to protect health from the potential impacts of climate change. MALDIVES: Develop appropriate early warning systems. BAHAMAS: Ensure that national emergency management plans also include heat stress|
|Infrastructure||Multi-purpose dams||Implementing dams that include more than one function can accommodate multiple adaptation needs, such as energy, water storage, and flood control [44,45].||MALAWI: Construct storage dams for hydropower generation. CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Develop hydroelectric installations (including micro-dams). JORDAN: Dams for storing floodwaters during the wet winter seasons and releasing water during the summer seasons.|
|Rural electrification||Extending rural electrification can enable adaptation and mitigate climate vulnerability [47,58]. If based on a diversified network of energy sources, it can reduce the vulnerability of energy supply .||BANGLADESH: Key areas to address adverse impacts of climate change include Increased Rural Electrification. SAINT LUCIA: Sustainable energy for all initiative. UGANDA: Extend electricity to the rural areas.|
|Transport||Improving the resilience of public transportation systems can reduce the vulnerability of urban centers, which are highly dependent on transport for daily functioning . Improvements in vehicles and transport efficiency can compensate for the increased use of air conditioning [21,31].||SINGAPORE: Constant review and revision of design codes, regulations and policies to account for new information and the latest climate projections. BAHRAIN: Improve public transport efficiency, reduce personal vehicle use. MOLDOVA: Promote the use of heat-tolerant streets and highway landscape protection.|
|Energy Efficiency||Energy efficiency||Implementing energy efficiency programs can reduce the vulnerability of the energy system, with mitigation co-benefits. If less energy is required for an identical service, power outages will cause less damage and thus encourage climate resilience [21,31].||MALAWI: Promote the use of energy efficient light bulbs. SWAZILAND: Reduced vulnerability to climate change through energy efficiency. BURKINA FASO: Promote energy efficiency in urban and rural households.|
|Renewable Energy||Renewable energy||Differentiating the sources of energy supply by relying on a wider range of renewable sources can reduce the vulnerability of the energy sector [21,57]. For example, micro grids and decentralized energy solutions are low-carbon and create a more resilient power system .||ETHIOPIA: Expand electric power generation from geothermal, wind, and solar sources to minimize the adverse effects of droughts on hydroelectricity. EGYPT: Increased use of renewable energy may provide several opportunities, including reduced local environmental and health impacts. BURKINA FASO: Diversification of energy sources (solar, wind, biogas).|
|Information & Education||Information and education||Education, awareness and capacity building can enhance adaptive capacity and support development . Climate services are an important component of the adaptation agenda .||KENYA: Enhance education, training, public awareness, participation and access to information on climate change adaptation across public and private sectors. Enhance climate information services. MALDIVES: Improve climate data collection, management and forecasting. Education, training, and public awareness remain a key priority.|
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Davide, M.; De Cian, E.; Bernigaud, A. Building a Framework to Understand the Energy Needs of Adaptation. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4085. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154085
Davide M, De Cian E, Bernigaud A. Building a Framework to Understand the Energy Needs of Adaptation. Sustainability. 2019; 11(15):4085. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154085Chicago/Turabian Style
Davide, Marinella, Enrica De Cian, and Alexis Bernigaud. 2019. "Building a Framework to Understand the Energy Needs of Adaptation" Sustainability 11, no. 15: 4085. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154085