Fruit and vegetable intake is indicated among the features of sustainable diets, while children’s intake is strongly associated with the intake of their parents, as well as the availability of food products and their accessibility at home. The aim of the study was to analyze the mother-related determinants of children at-home fruit and vegetable dietary patterns in a Polish national sample of children aged 3–10 years. The random quota sampling (with quotas for age, education, and place of residence) was conducted to recruit the national representative sample of Polish mothers of children aged 3–10 years (n = 1200) who were interviewed using a Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) method. They were asked about their children’s at-home fruit and vegetable dietary patterns, which were later compared in sub-groups that were stratified for age, educational background, marital status, place of residence, occupational status, and total net income in households. The indicated features, but not marital status, were indicated as determinants of children at-home fruit and vegetable dietary patterns. Children of younger mothers more often than others consumed fruits, whereas those of older mothers consumed vegetables. Children of mothers who had a lower level of education more commonly than others consumed fruits alone as a dish, and they had a higher preference for them, while those of mothers who had a higher level of education had a higher consumption of vegetables than others, although they had a medium preference for them. Children of mothers from villages had a lower consumption of vegetables and fruits than others, although they had a higher preference for fruits. Children of mothers with no professional job had a lower consumption of vegetables than others and more often consumed them processed, although they had a higher preference for fruits and vegetables. Children of mothers with low income had a lower consumption of vegetables than others and more often consumed fruits in a dish with other products, although they had a higher preference for fruits and vegetables. To summarize, an indication of a high preference for fruits and vegetables by mothers is not accompanied by the higher consumption and recommended dietary patterns for fruit and vegetable intake by their children. In particular, the sub-samples of mothers who had a low level of education, were from villages, did not have a professional job, and had low income may either overestimate the fruit and vegetable preference of their children or do not offer them sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables, although they indicate a higher preference. In order to encourage more sustainable diet following, in terms of the fruit and vegetable intake, it is essential to introduce actions toward the properly planned nutritional education for the indicated target groups.
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