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Open AccessArticle

Trade Openness and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Tunisia

Department of Finance, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, 165 Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciale de Tunis, Montfleury, Université de Tunis, 4 Abou Zakaria Al Hafsi, Tunis 1089, Tunisie
Department of Finance and Investment, College of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh 11432, Saudi Arabia
Faculté des Sciences Juridiques Economiques et de Gestion de Jendouba, Université de Jendouba, Avenue de l’Union du Maghreb Arabe, Jendouba 8189, Tunisie
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3295;
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
We investigated the asymmetrical effects of trade openness on CO2 emissions and the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Tunisia during the period 1971–2014. The integration analysis suggests a mixed order of integration and the cointegration analysis corroborates the long- and short-run relationships. The EKC was proved true with a turning point gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately 292.335 billion constant US dollars, and Tunisia was found at the first phase of EKC. Moreover, we corroborate the asymmetrical effects of trade openness on CO2 emissions. The effects of increasing and decreasing trade openness are found to be positive and insignificant on CO2 emissions, respectively. The pollution haven hypothesis is found to be true in Tunisia, along with negative environmental effects associated with increasing foreign trade. View Full-Text
Keywords: CO2 emissions; trade openness; asymmetry; EKC CO2 emissions; trade openness; asymmetry; EKC
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Mahmood, H.; Maalel, N.; Zarrad, O. Trade Openness and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Tunisia. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3295.

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