Next Article in Journal
Heterogenous Energy Consumption Behavior by Firm Size: Evidence from Korean Environmental Regulations
Next Article in Special Issue
Governance Discourses Reflecting Tensions in a Multifunctional Land Use System in Decay; Tradition Versus Modernity in the Portuguese Montado
Previous Article in Journal
Construction of Open Innovation Ecology on the Internet: A Case Study of Xiaomi (China) Using Institutional Logic
Previous Article in Special Issue
Land Use and Land Cover Scenarios for Optimum Water Yield and Sediment Retention Ecosystem Services in Klong U-Tapao Watershed, Songkhla, Thailand
Review

Impacts of Agricultural Management Systems on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Highly Simplified Dryland Landscapes

1
Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120, USA
2
Department of Entomology, Plant Pathology and Nematology; 875 Perimeter Drive MS 2329, Moscow, ID 83844-2329, USA
3
Department of Ecology, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173460, Bozeman, MT 59717-3460, USA
4
Natural Resource Ecology and Management, 008C Agricultural Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
5
Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics, P.O. Box 172920, Bozeman, MT 59717-3460, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(11), 3223; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113223
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
Covering about 40% of Earth’s land surface and sustaining at least 38% of global population, drylands are key crop and animal production regions with high economic and social values. However, land use changes associated with industrialized agricultural managements are threatening the sustainability of these systems. While previous studies assessing the impacts of agricultural management systems on biodiversity and their services focused on more diversified mesic landscapes, there is a dearth of such research in highly simplified dryland agroecosystems. In this paper, we 1) summarize previous research on the effects of farm management systems and agricultural expansion on biodiversity and biodiversity-based ecosystem services, 2) present four case studies assessing the impacts of management systems on biodiversity and ecosystem services across highly simplified dryland landscapes of the Northern Great Plains (NGP), USA, 3) discuss approaches to sustain biodiversity-based ecosystem services in drylands, and 4) present a conceptual framework for enhancing agricultural sustainability in the drylands through research, policy, economic valuation, and adaptive management. An analysis of the land use changes due to agricultural expansion within the Golden Triangle, a representative agricultural area in the NGP, indicated that the proportion of land conversion to agriculture area was 84%, 8%, and 7% from grassland, riparian, and shrubland habitats, respectively. Our results showed this simplification was associated with a potential reduction of pollination services. Also, our economic analysis projected that if 30% parasitism could be achieved through better management systems, the estimated potential economic returns to pest regulation services through parasitoids in Montana, USA alone could reach about $11.23 million. Overall, while dryland agroecosystems showed a significant loss of native biodiversity and its services, greater pest incidence, and a decrease in plant pollinator networks, these trends were moderately reversed in organically managed farming systems. In conclusion, although land use changes due to agricultural expansion and industrialized farming threaten the sustainability of dryland agroecosystems, this impact can be partially offset by coupling ecologically-based farming practices with adaptive management strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural expansion; biodiversity-based ecosystem services; farm management systems; Golden Triangle; Northern Great Plains agricultural expansion; biodiversity-based ecosystem services; farm management systems; Golden Triangle; Northern Great Plains
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Adhikari, S.; Adhikari, A.; Weaver, D.K.; Bekkerman, A.; Menalled, F.D. Impacts of Agricultural Management Systems on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Highly Simplified Dryland Landscapes. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3223. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113223

AMA Style

Adhikari S, Adhikari A, Weaver DK, Bekkerman A, Menalled FD. Impacts of Agricultural Management Systems on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Highly Simplified Dryland Landscapes. Sustainability. 2019; 11(11):3223. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113223

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adhikari, Subodh, Arjun Adhikari, David K. Weaver, Anton Bekkerman, and Fabian D. Menalled. 2019. "Impacts of Agricultural Management Systems on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Highly Simplified Dryland Landscapes" Sustainability 11, no. 11: 3223. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113223

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop