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Open AccessArticle

Response of Corals Acropora pharaonis and Porites lutea to Changes in pH and Temperature in the Gulf

Environment and Life Sciences Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat 13109, Kuwait
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 451-78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(11), 3156;
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
PDF [485 KB, uploaded 5 June 2019]


Coral reefs are harboring a large part of the marine biodiversity and are important ecosystems for the equilibrium of the oceans. As a consequence of anthropogenic CO2 emission, a drop in pH and an increase in seawater temperature is observed in the Gulf coastal waters that potentially threaten coral assemblages. An experimental study was conducted on two species of corals to assess the effect of ocean warming and ocean acidification on the net calcification rate. Two pH conditions 8.2 and 7.5 and three temperatures, 22.5, 27.5 and 32.5 °C, were considered. Net calcification rates were measured using 45Ca radiotracer. Both temperature and pH had a significant effect on net calcification rates following a similar pattern for both species. The highest calcification rate was observed at low temperature and high pH. Increased temperature and decreased pH led to a decrease in net calcification rates. An interactive effect was observed as the effect of pH decreased with increasing temperature. However, the two species of coral were able to calcify in all the tested combination of temperature and pH suggesting that they are adapted to short term changes in temperature and pH. Ability to calcify even at a high temperature of 32.5 °C that is identical to the summertime Gulf seawater temperature under both the ambient and low pH condition with no mortalities, raises a question: are these corals adapted to high seawater temperatures and low pH? More in-depth assessments will be required to confirm if this is an adaptation to higher temperatures in Persian Gulf corals. View Full-Text
Keywords: CO2 emission; ocean warming; ocean acidification CO2 emission; ocean warming; ocean acidification

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Behbehani, M.; Uddin, S.; Dupont, S.; Sajid, S.; Al-Musalam, L.; Al-Ghadban, A. Response of Corals Acropora pharaonis and Porites lutea to Changes in pH and Temperature in the Gulf. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3156.

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