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Simulation of the Operation of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Various Biofuels and Its Contribution to Technology Management

1
Department of Organization and Production Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska Street 164, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Production Management, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska Street 45A, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
3
Institute of Technological Information Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 38 D, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2799; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102799
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Infrastructure Systems and Sustainable Economic Growth)
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Abstract

Economic progress, development of transport, production of new cars, production of more and more energy, and the combustion of fossil fuels are causing huge changes that are currently occurring in the environment. Ecological problems of the contemporary economy combined with perspectives of resources exhaustion, as well as the need to follow sustainable rules of living, require the search for new fuels. Fuels which can assure their availability and good environmental performance are needed for maintaining sustainable transportation. Knowledge about the behavior of various fuels is necessary for realistic methods of technology management in transportation means and the fuel industry. This paper describes biofuels that can be an addition to petrol or can exist as standalone fuels. A simulation was carried out on an urban vehicle and the tested fuels were petrol 95, ethanol, methanol, and dimethyl ether. For the selected engine a simulation corresponding to that of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) test was created using the Scilab package. Based on this simulation, values of carbon dioxide and water vapor emission were determined. The fuel demand for each fuel mixture and the amount of air for the fuels used were also calculated (and verified on the basis of laboratory tests). It was demonstrated that addition of biofuel decreases emission of carbon dioxide, simultaneously increasing emission of water vapor. Biofuel additive also caused an increase in fuel consumption. Unfortunately, in the New European Driving Cycle test being investigated, carbon dioxide emissions in all cases exceeded the permissible level of 130 g CO2/km, which is bad news in the context of the further tightening of norms and standards. The simulation tests confirmed that when using the start/stop system and applying specific additives, the carbon dioxide emission decreases and the consumption of mixtures with the activated start/stop system is smaller. The analyzed problems and results of this analysis become more important in light of the Worldwide Harmonized Light Duty Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) standard, which became binding from September 2018 and applies to the sale of cars that had been approved prior (in accordance with the New European Driving Cycle standard). Although the NEDC standard appears obsolete the computer model simulating this type of test will be necessary in many cases. It is, however, needed and possible to develop a similar simulation procedure for WLTP tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofuels; emission standards; vehicle test; exhaust emission; simulation; fuel production management biofuels; emission standards; vehicle test; exhaust emission; simulation; fuel production management
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tucki, K.; Mruk, R.; Orynycz, O.; Wasiak, A.; Botwińska, K.; Gola, A. Simulation of the Operation of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Various Biofuels and Its Contribution to Technology Management. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2799.

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