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The Main Agroecological Structure (MAS) of the Agroecosystems: Concept, Methodology and Applications

Permaculture—Scientific Evidence of Principles for the Agroecological Design of Farming Systems

by 1,* and 2
Institute for Environmental Science, University of Koblenz-Landau, 76829 Landau, Germany
Landscape Ecology and Environmental Systems Analysis, Institute of Geoecology, Technical University Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3218;
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
Modern industrial agriculture is largely responsible for environmental problems, such as biodiversity loss, soil degradation, and alteration of biogeochemical cycles or greenhouse gas emission. Agroecology, as a scientific discipline as well as an agricultural practice and movement, emerged as a response to these problems, with the goal to create a more sustainable agriculture. Another response was the emergence of permaculture, a design system based on design principles, as well as a framework for the methods of ecosystem mimicry and complex system optimization. Its emphasis, being on a conscious design of agroecosystems, is the major difference to other alternative agricultural approaches. Agroecology has been a scientific discipline for a few decades already, but only recently have design principles for the reorganization of faming systems been formulated, whereas permaculture practitioners have long been using design principles without them ever being scrutinized. Here, we review the scientific literature to evaluate the scientific basis for the design principles proposed by permaculture co-originator, David Holmgren. Scientific evidence for all twelve principles will be presented. Even though permaculture principles describing the structure of favorable agroecosystems were quite similar to the agroecological approach, permaculture in addition provides principles to guide the design, implementation, and maintenance of resilient agroecological systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: agriculture; agroecology; permaculture; design principles agriculture; agroecology; permaculture; design principles
MDPI and ACS Style

Krebs, J.; Bach, S. Permaculture—Scientific Evidence of Principles for the Agroecological Design of Farming Systems. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3218.

AMA Style

Krebs J, Bach S. Permaculture—Scientific Evidence of Principles for the Agroecological Design of Farming Systems. Sustainability. 2018; 10(9):3218.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krebs, Julius, and Sonja Bach. 2018. "Permaculture—Scientific Evidence of Principles for the Agroecological Design of Farming Systems" Sustainability 10, no. 9: 3218.

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