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Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2826;

Soil Salinity Mapping of Urban Greenery Using Remote Sensing and Proximal Sensing Techniques; The Case of Veale Gardens within the Adelaide Parklands

Department of Water Engineering and Management, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Department, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Centre, AREEO, Isfahan 8174835117, Iran
Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, 23 College Walk, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5095, Australia
Department of Geography and the Environment, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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More well-maintained green spaces leading toward sustainable, smart green cities mean that alternative water resources (e.g., wastewater) are needed to fulfill the water demand of urban greenery. These alternative resources may introduce some environmental hazards, such as salt leaching through wastewater irrigation. Despite the necessity of salinity monitoring and management in urban green spaces, most attention has been on agricultural fields. This study was defined to investigate the capability and feasibility of monitoring and predicting soil salinity using proximal sensing and remote sensing approaches. The innovation of the study lies in the fact that it is one of the first research studies to investigate soil salinity in heterogeneous urban vegetation with two approaches: proximal sensing salinity mapping using Electromagnetic-induction Meter (EM38) surveys and remote sensing using the high-resolution multispectral image of WorldView3. The possible spectral band combinations that form spectral indices were calculated using remote sensing techniques. The results from the EM38 survey were validated by testing soil samples in the laboratory. These findings were compared to remote sensing-based soil salinity indicators to examine their competence on mapping and predicting spatial variation of soil salinity in urban greenery. Several regression models were fitted; the mixed effect modeling was selected as the most appropriate to analyze data, as it takes into account the systematic observation-specific unobserved heterogeneity. Our results showed that Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) was the only salinity index that could be considered for predicting soil salinity in urban greenery using high-resolution images, yet further investigation is recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical remote sensing; worldview3; EM38; urban green spaces; Adelaide parklands optical remote sensing; worldview3; EM38; urban green spaces; Adelaide parklands

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Nouri, H.; Chavoshi Borujeni, S.; Alaghmand, S.; Anderson, S.J.; Sutton, P.C.; Parvazian, S.; Beecham, S. Soil Salinity Mapping of Urban Greenery Using Remote Sensing and Proximal Sensing Techniques; The Case of Veale Gardens within the Adelaide Parklands. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2826.

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