“In some of the theory and research surrounding ‘the sharing economy,’ sharing is so blurred with traditional marketplace exchanges as to be indistinguishable. Or more accurately, the concepts often remain distinct, but a ‘sharewashing’ effort is made to blur them to the extent that marketplace exchange is touted as sharing.” (p. 193)
2. Theoretical Background
2.1. Sustainability in the Sharing Economy
2.2. Corporate Social Responsibility, Greenwashing, and Sharewashing
2.3. Perceived Risk Theory and Consumer Confusion
3. Constructs, Measurements, and Research Model
3.1. The Association of Sharewashing and Consumer Trust (H1)
3.2. The Mediating Role of Consumer Confusion (H2)
3.3. The Mediating Role of Perceived Risk of Sharing (H3)
4. Survey Administration and Results
4.1. Procedures and Sampling
4.2. Overall Results
4.3. Measurement Model
4.4. Structural Model and Hypotheses Testing
4.5. Control Variable Analysis
5.1. Practical Implications
5.2. Limitation and Future Research
Conflicts of Interest
- Price, L.L.; Belk, R.W. Consumer Ownership and Sharing: Introduction to the Issue. J. Assoc. Consum. Res. 2016, 1, 193–197. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sundararajan, A. The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2016; ISBN 978-0-262-33341-2. [Google Scholar]
- Frenken, K.; Schor, J. Putting the sharing economy into perspective. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 2017, 23, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Meelen, T.; Frenken, K. Stop Saying Uber is Part of the Sharing Economy. Fast Co. 2015. Available online: https://www.fastcompany.com/3040863/stop-saying-uber-is-part-of-the-sharing-economy (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Teubner, T.; Hawlitschek, F. The Economics of Peer-to-Peer Online Sharing. In The Rise of the Sharing Economy: Exploring the Challenges and Opportunities of Collaborative Consumption; Albinsson, P.A., Perera, Y., Eds.; ABC-CLIO: Santa Barbara, CA, USA, 2018; pp. 129–156. ISBN 978-1440851865. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations. Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; United Nations: New York, NY, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Frenken, K. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy. Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 2017, 375, 1–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Martin, C.J. The sharing economy: A pathway to sustainability or a nightmarish form of neoliberal capitalism? Ecol. Econ. 2016, 121, 149–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Belk, R.W. Sharing versus pseudo-sharing in web 2.0. Anthropologist 2014, 18, 7–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Montiel, I. Corporate social responsibility and corporate sustainability: Separate pasts, common futures. Organ. Environ. 2008, 21, 245–269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mahoney, L.S.; Thorne, L.; Cecil, L.; LaGore, W. A research note on standalone corporate social responsibility reports: Signaling or greenwashing? Crit. Perspect. Account. 2013, 24, 350–359. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kalamar, A. Sharewashing is the New Greenwashing. OpEdNews. 2013. Available online: https://www.opednews.com/articles/Sharewashing-is-the-New-Gr-by-Anthony-Kalamar-130513-834.html (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- MacmillanDictionary. Sharewashing. Available online: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/buzzword/entries/sharewashing.html (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Parguel, B.; Benoît-Moreau, F.; Larceneux, F. How Sustainability Ratings Might Deter “Greenwashing”: A Closer Look at Ethical Corporate Communication. J. Bus. Ethics 2011, 102, 15–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Light, A.; Miskelly, C. Sharing economy vs sharing cultures? Designing for social, economic and environmental good. Interact. Des. Archit. J. 2015, 24, 49–62. [Google Scholar]
- Netter, S. Exploring the Sharing Economy; Copenhagen Business School: Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Huang, L.-S. #WeWashing: When “Sharing” Is Renting and “Community” Is a Commodity. Huffington Post. 2015. Available online: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/leesean-huang/wewashing-when-sharing-is_b_6879018.html (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Tu, D.P. Sharewash in the Sharing Economy: A First Look on the Phenomenon and Effects of Sharewash; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology: Karlsruhe, Germany, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Hawlitschek, F.; Stofberg, N.O.; Teubner, T.; Tu, P.; Weinhardt, C. A First Look on Sharewashing in the Sharing Economy: How False Claims Can Impede Trust Extended Abstract. In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on the Sharing Economy (IWSE), Lund, Sweden, 15–16 June 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Chen, Y.; Chang, C. Greenwash and Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Consumer Confusion and Green Perceived Risk. J. Bus. Ethics 2013, 114, 489–500. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Laufer, W.S. Social Accountability and Corporate Greenwashing. J. Bus. Ethics 2003, 43, 253–261. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Levin, S. Airbnb’s data shows that Airbnb helps the middle class. But does it? Guardian. 2016. Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/27/airbnb-panel-democratic-national-convention-survey (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Ganesan, S. Shankar Determinants of long-term orientation in buyer-seller relationships. J. Mark. 1994, 58, 1–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chen, Y. The Drivers of Green Brand Equity: Green Brand Image, Green Satisfaction, and Green Trust. J. Bus. Ethics 2010, 93, 307–319. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mazzella, F.; Sundararajan, A.; Butt d’Espous, V.; Möhlmann, M. How digital trust powers the Sharing Economy: The digitization of trust. IESE Insight 2016, 24–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ter Huurne, M.; Ronteltap, A.; Rense, C.; Buskens, V. Understanding trust in the sharing economy: A systematic review. J. Consum. Behav. 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hawlitschek, F.; Teubner, T.; Weinhardt, C. Trust in the Sharing Economy. Die Unternehm. Swiss J. Bus. Res. Pract. 2016, 70, 26–44. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Möhlmann, M. Digital Trust and Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Consumption Platforms: A Mediation Analysis. SSRN Electron. J. 2016. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mittendorf, C. The Implications of Trust in the Sharing Economy—An Empirical Analysis of Uber. In Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2017 (HICSS-50), Hilton Waikoloa Village, HI, USA, 4–7 January 2017; pp. 5837–5846. [Google Scholar]
- Ert, E.; Fleischer, A.; Magen, N. Trust and reputation in the sharing economy: The role of personal photos in Airbnb. Tour. Manag. 2016, 55, 62–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Möhlmann, M.; Geissinger, A. Trust in the Sharing Economy: Platform- Mediated Peer Trust (Forthcoming). In Cambridge Handbook of the Law and Regulation of the Sharing Economy; Davidson, N., Infranca, J., Finck, M., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Hawlitschek, F.; Notheisen, B.; Teubner, T. The limits of trust-free systems: A literature review on blockchain technology and trust in the sharing economy. Electron. Commer. Res. Appl. 2018, 29, 50–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Meadows, D.H.; Meadows, D.L.; Randers, J.; Behrens, W.W.I. The Limits to Growth; Universe Books: New York, NY, USA, 1972; ISBN 0876631650. [Google Scholar]
- General Assembly of the United Nations (UNGA). 2005 World Summit Outcome; General Assembly of the United Nations: New York, NY, USA, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Heinrichs, H. Sharing Economy: A Potential New Pathway to Sustainability. GAIA Ecol. Perspect. Sci. Soc. 2013, 22, 228–231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Botsman, R.; Rogers, R. What’s Mine Is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption; HarperCollins Publishers: New York, NY, USA, 2010; ISBN 9780061963544. [Google Scholar]
- Demailly, D.; Novel, A.-S. The Sharing Economy: Make It Sustainable. IDDRI SciencesPo 2014, 3, 14–30. [Google Scholar]
- Möhlmann, M. Collaborative consumption: Determinants of satisfaction and the likelihood of using a sharing economy option again. J. Consum. Behav. 2015, 14, 193–207. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schor, J. Debating the Sharing Economy. J. Self-Gov. Manag. Econ. 2016, 4, 7–22. [Google Scholar]
- PwC. The Sharing Economy—Consumer Intelligence Series. 2015. Available online: https://www.pwc.com/us/en/industry/entertainment-media/publications/consumer-intelligence-series/assets/pwc-cis-sharing-economy.pdf (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Böcker, L.; Meelen, T. Sharing for people, planet or profit? Analysing motivations for intended sharing economy participation. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 2017, 23, 28–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Murillo, D.; Buckland, H.; Val, E. When the sharing economy becomes neoliberalism on steroids: Unravelling the controversies. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2017, 125, 66–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Habibi, M.R.; Davidson, A.; Laroche, M. What managers should know about the sharing economy. Bus. Horiz. 2017, 60, 113–121. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Coppola, L. Flash Report: 82% of the S&P 500 Companies Published Corporate Sustainability Reports in 2016. 3BL MEDIA. 2016. Available online: https://3blmedia.com/News/Flash-Report-82-SP-500-Companies-Published-Corporate-Sustainability-Reports-2016 (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Dyllick, T.; Muff, K. Clarifying the Meaning of Sustainable Business. Organ. Environ. 2016, 29, 156–174. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dočekalová, M.P.; Kocmanová, A. Composite indicator for measuring corporate sustainability. Ecol. Indic. 2016, 61, 612–623. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alvaredo, F.; Chancel, L.; Piketty, T.; Saez, E.; Zucman, G. Global inequality dynamics: New findings from WID.world. Am. Econ. Rev. 2017, 107, 404–409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rogelj, J.; Den Elzen, M.; Höhne, N.; Fransen, T.; Fekete, H.; Winkler, H.; Schaeffer, R.; Sha, F.; Riahi, K.; Meinshausen, M. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C. Nature 2016, 534, 631–639. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Borck, J.C.; Coglianese, C. Voluntary Environmental Programs: Assessing Their Effectiveness. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 2009, 34, 305–324. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Porter, M.E.; Kramer, M.R. Creating Shared Value. Harv. Bus. Rev. 2011, 89, 62–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reinhardt, F. Market Failure and the Environmental Policies of Firms: Economic Rationales for “Beyond Compliance” Behavior. J. Ind. Ecol. 1999, 3, 9–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lankoski, L. Corporate responsibility activities and economic performance: A theory of why and how they are connected. Bus. Strateg. Environ. 2008, 17, 536–547. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vos, J. Actions speak louder than words: Greenwashing in corporate America. Notre Dame JL Ethics Pub. Pol’y 2009, 23, 673–697. Available online: https://scholarship.law.nd.edu/ndjlepp/vol23/iss2/13 (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Pope, S.; Wæraas, A. CSR-Washing is Rare: A Conceptual Framework, Literature Review, and Critique. J. Bus. Ethics 2016, 137, 173–193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hooghiemstra, R. Corporate communication and impression management: New perspectives why companies engage in corporate social reporting. J. Bus. Ethics 2000, 27, 55–68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Niskanen, J.; Nieminen, T. The objectivity of corporate environmental reporting: A study of finnish listed firms’ environmental disclosures. Bus. Strateg. Environ. 2001, 10, 29–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rivera, J.; de Leon, P.; Koerber, C. Is greener whiter yet? The sustainable slopes program after five years. Policy Stud. J. 2006, 34, 195–221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Christmann, P.; Taylor, G. Firm Self-Regulation through International Certifiable Standards: Determinants of Symbolic versus Substantive Implementation. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 2006, 37, 863–878. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ashley-Cantello, W. Advertising watchdog receives record complaints over corporate ‘greenwash’. The Guardian. 2008. Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2008/may/01/corporatesocialresponsibility.ethicalliving (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Furfaro, D. Uber and Lyft ordered to hand over trip data. New York Post. 2017. Available online: https://nypost.com/2017/02/02/uber-and-lyft-ordered-to-hand-over-trip-data/ (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Airbnb Environmental Impacts of Home Sharing. Available online: https://blog.atairbnb.com/environmental-impacts-of-home-sharing/ (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Voytenko Palgan, Y.; Zvolska, L.; Mont, O. Sustainability framings of accommodation sharing. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 2017, 23, 70–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Parguel, B.; Lunardo, R.; Benoit-Moreau, F. Sustainability of the sharing economy in question: When second-hand peer-to-peer platforms stimulate indulgent consumption. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2017, 125, 48–57. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Emerson, S. Uber Wants Us to Think It’s Environmentally Friendly, But Is It? VICE. 2016. Available online: https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/78kkj9/is-uber-good-or-bad-for-the-environment (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Goodman, J.D. Under Mayor de Blasio, City Vehicles Rack Up Miles. The New York Times. 2017. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/22/nyregion/city-owned-vehicle-miles-crashes-de-blasio.html (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Schaller, B. Unsustainable? The Growth of App-Based Ride Services and Traffic, Travel and the Future of New York City. Available online: http://schallerconsult.com/rideservices/unsustainable.htm (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Habibi, M.R.; Kim, A.; Laroche, M. From Sharing to Exchange: An Extended Framework of Dual Modes of Collaborative Nonownership Consumption. J. Assoc. Consum. Res. 2016, 1, 277–294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bardhi, F.; Eckhardt, G.M. Access-Based Consumption: The Case of Car Sharing. J. Consum. Res. 2012, 39, 881–898. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mitchell, V.; Papavassiliou, V. Marketing causes and implications of consumer confusion. J. Prod. Brand Manag. 1999, 8, 319–342. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dohmen, T.; Falk, A.; Huffman, D.; Sunde, U.; Schupp, J.; Wagner, G.G. Individual risk attitudes: Measurement, determinants, and behavioral consequences. J. Eur. Econ. Assoc. 2011, 9, 522–550. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peter, J.P.; Ryan, M.J. Investigation of perceived risk at the brand level. J. Mark. 1976, 13, 184–188. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Avital, M.; Anderson, M.; Nickerson, J.; Sundararajan, A.; Van Alstyne, M.W.; Verhoeven, D. The Collaborative Economy: A Disruptive Innovation or Much Ado about Nothing? In Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2014), Auckland, New Zealand, 14–17 December 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Malhotra, A.; Van Alstyne, M.W. The dark side of the sharing economy … and how to lighten it. Commun. ACM 2014, 57, 24–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hartl, B.; Hofmann, E.; Kirchler, E. Do we need rules for “what’s mine is yours”? Governance in collaborative consumption communities. J. Bus. Res. 2016, 69, 2756–2763. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kassan, J.; Orsi, J. The Legal Landscape of the Sharing Economy. J. Environ. Law Litig. 2012, 27, 1–20. [Google Scholar]
- Edelman, B.; Luca, M. Digital Discrimination: The Case of Airbnb.com. SSRN Electron. J. 2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Edelman, B.; Luca, M.; Svirsky, D. Racial Discrimination in the Sharing Economy: Evidence from a Field Experiment. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 2017, 9, 1–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Turnbull, P.W.; Leek, S.; Ying, G. The Mobile Phone Market Customer Confusion: The Mobile. J. Mark. Cust. Confusion 2010, 16, 143–163. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rousseau, D.M.; Sitkin, S.B.; Burt, R.S.; Camerer, C. Not so different after all: A cross discipline view of trust. Acad. Manag. Rev. 1998, 23, 393–404. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kalafatis, S.P.; Pollard, M.; East, R.; Tsogas, M.H. Green marketing and Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour: A cross-market examination. J. Consum. Mark. 1999, 16, 441–460. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ramus, C.A.; Montiel, I. When are corporate environmental policies a form of greenwashing? Bus. Soc. 2005, 44, 377–414. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Acquier, A.; Daudigeos, T.; Pinkse, J. Promises and paradoxes of the sharing economy: An organizing framework. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2017, 125, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Botsman, R. The Sharing Economy Lacks A Shared Definition. Fast Company. 2013. Available online: https://www.fastcompany.com/3022028/the-sharing-economy-lacks-a-shared-definition (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Oh, S.; Moon, J.Y. Calling for a Shared Understanding of the “Sharing Economy”. In Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference on Electronic Commerce: E-Commerce in Smart Connected World, Suwon, Korea, 17–19 August 2016. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stephany, A. The Business of Sharing: Making It in the New Sharing Economy; Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke, UK, 2015; ISBN 978-1-137-37618-3. [Google Scholar]
- Bellotti, V.; Ambard, A.; Turner, D.; Gossmann, C.; Demková, K.; Carroll, J.M. A Muddle of Models of Motivation For Using Peer-to-Peer Economy Systems. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’15), Seoul, Korea, 18–23 April 2015; pp. 1085–1094. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mitchell, V.; Walsh, G.; Yamin, M. Towards a conceptual model of consumer confusion. Adv. Consum. Res. 2005, 32, 143–150. [Google Scholar]
- Lu, A.C.C.; Gursoy, D.; Lu, C.Y.R. Antecedents and outcomes of consumers’ confusion in the online tourism domain. Ann. Tour. Res. 2016, 57, 76–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Walsh, G.; Mitchell, V. The effect of consumer confusion proneness on word of mouth, trust, and customer satisfaction. Eur. J. Mark. 2010, 44, 838–859. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Matzler, K.; Stieger, D.; Füller, J. Consumer Confusion in Internet-Based Mass Customization: Testing a Network of Antecedents and Consequences. J. Consum. Policy 2011, 34, 231–247. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Darke, P.R.; Ashworth, L.; Ritchie, R.J.B. Damage from Corrective Advertising: Causes and Cures. J. Mark. 2008, 72, 81–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hausemer, P.; Rzepecka, J.; Dragulin, M.; Vitiello, S.; Rabuel, L.; Nunu, M.; Diaz, A.R.; Psaila, E.; Fiorentini, S.; Gysen, S.; et al. Exploratory Study of Consumer Issues in Online Peer-to-Peer Platform Markets; European Commission: Brussel, Belgium, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- BlaBlaCar Let’s Tackle Air Pollution. Available online: https://www.blablacar.co.uk/blablalife/reinventing-travel/lets-tackle-air-pollution (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Airbnb We Accept. Available online: https://marketing.atairbnb.com/casestudies/we-accept (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Herndon, N.C. The Sharing Economy: Opportunities and Challenges for Marketing Channels and Supply Chains. J. Mark. Channels 2017, 24, 1–2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Mair, J.; Reischauer, G. Capturing the dynamics of the sharing economy: Institutional research on the plural forms and practices of sharing economy organizations. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2017, 125, 11–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Grinevich, V.; Huber, F.; Karataş-Özkan, M.; Yavuz, Ç. Green entrepreneurship in the sharing economy: Utilising multiplicity of institutional logics. Small Bus. Econ. 2017, 1–18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nijland, H.; van Meerkerk, J. Mobility and environmental impacts of car sharing in the Netherlands. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 2017, 23, 84–91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wegmann, J.; Jiao, J. Taming Airbnb: Toward guiding principles for local regulation of urban vacation rentals based on empirical results from five US cities. Land Use Policy 2017, 69, 494–501. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lee, D. How Airbnb Short-Term Rentals Exacerbate Los Angeles’s Affordable Housing Crisis: Analysis and Policy Recommendations. Harv. Law Policy Rev. 2016, 10, 229–253. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Harridge-March, S. Can the building of trust overcome consumer perceived risk online? Mark. Intell. Plan. 2006, 24, 746–761. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kaplan, R.A.; Nadler, M.L. Airbnb: A Case Study in Occupancy Regulation and Taxation. Univ. Chic. Law Rev. 2015, 60, 103–115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koehn, D. The nature of and conditions for online trust. J. Bus. Ethics 2003, 43, 3–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Akbar, P.; Mai, R.; Hoffmann, S. When do materialistic consumers join commercial sharing systems. J. Bus. Res. 2016, 69, 4215–4224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Godelnik, R. Millennials and the sharing economy: Lessons from a ‘buy nothing new, share everything month’ project. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 2017, 23, 40–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ranzini, G.; Newlands, G.; Anselmi, G.; Andreotti, A.; Eichhorn, T.; Etter, M.; Hoffmann, C.P.; Jürss, S.; Lutz, C. Millennials and the Sharing Economy: European Perspectives. SSRN Electron. J. 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ringle, C.M.; Wende, S.; Becker, J.-M. SmartPLS 3. 2015. Available online: https://www.smartpls.com/ (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Sarstedt, M.; Hair, J.F.; Ringle, C.M.; Thiele, K.O.; Gudergan, S.P. Estimation issues with PLS and CBSEM: Where the bias lies! J. Bus. Res. 2016, 69, 3998–4010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gefen, D.; Straub, D.W.; Boudreau, M.-C. Structural Equation Modeling and Regression: Guidelines for Research Practice. Commun. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 2000, 4, 7. [Google Scholar]
- Hair, J.F.; Hult, G.T.M.; Ringle, C.M.; Sarstedt, M. A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM); SAGE Publications: New York, NY, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Cohen, J. A Power Primer. Psychol. Bull. 1992, 112, 155–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Fornell, C.; Larcker, D.F. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. J. Mark. Res. 1981, 18, 39–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chin, W.W. The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Mod. Methods Bus. Res. 1998, 295, 295–336. [Google Scholar]
- Henseler, J.; Ringle, C.M.; Sarstedt, M. A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. J. Acad. Mark. Sci. 2014, 43, 115–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Botsman, R. The Currency of the New Economy Is Trust. Available online: https://www.ted.com/talks/rachel_botsman_the_currency_of_the_new_economy_is_trust? (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Han, H.; Koo, C.; Chung, N. Implication of the fit between airbnb and host characteristics. In Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, Staten Island, NY, USA, 7–9 June 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Ferenstein, G. Uber CEO Spells Out His Endgame, In 2 Quotes. Forbes. 2015. Available online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gregoryferenstein/2015/09/16/uber-ceo-spells-out-his-endgame-in-2-quotes/#53a1b5937bec (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Etter, M.; Colleoni, E.; Illia, L.; Meggiorin, K.; D’Eugenio, A. Measuring organizational legitimacy in social media: Assessing citizens’ judgement with sentiment analysis. Bus. Soc. 2018, 57, 60–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Drummond, G. Consumer confusion: Reduction strategies in higher education. Int. J. Educ. Manag. 2004, 18, 317–323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chen, Y.; Chang, C. Enhance green purchase intentions: The roles of green perceived value, green perceived risk, and green trust. Manag. Decis. 2012, 50, 502–520. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peterson, R. On the Use of College Students in Social Science Research: Insights from a Second-Order Meta-analysis. J. Consum. Res. 2001, 28, 450–461. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Maru/Matchbox. The Battle for Trust and the Sharing Economy. 2017. Available online: http://resources.marumatchbox.com/hubfs/The_Battle_for_Trust_and_the_Sharing_Economy.pdf (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Nielsen. Is Sharing the New Buying? Reputation and Trust are Emerging as New Currencies. 2014. Available online: http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/reports/2014/is-sharing-the-new-buying.html (accessed on 24 July 2018).
- Antonakis, J.; Bendahan, S.; Jacquart, P.; Lalive, R. Causality and endogeneity: Problems and solutions. In The Oxford Handbook of Leadership and Organizations; Day, D.V., Ed.; Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2014; pp. 93–117. ISBN 9780199755615. [Google Scholar]
- Hawlitschek, F.; Teubner, T.; Adam, M.T.P.; Borchers, N.S.; Möhlmann, M.; Weinhardt, C. Trust in the Sharing Economy: An Experimental Framework. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland, 11–14 December 2016. [Google Scholar]
|Sharewashing (SHW): A consumer’s perception that a platform is misleading by purposely portraying an image of social and ecological principles while the platform’s business model is actually lefted around delivering utilitarian value.|
|1||P2PS pls often feign positive aspects of sharing within their product and service descriptions.|
|2||P2PS pls often mock positive aspects of sharing by means of visual and graphic design.|
|3||P2PS pls often claim positive aspects of sharing that are vague or difficult to verify.|
|4||P2PS pls often overstate the positive aspects of sharing.|
|Consumer Confusion (CNF): A consumer’s perception of failure to develop a correct interpretation of environmental or social features of a platform, product or service during the information processing procedure.|
|1||Due to the great similarity of many P2PS pls, it is difficult to identify those that actually facilitate the positive aspects of sharing.|
|2||It is hard to identify differences between P2PS pls with respect to the positive aspects of sharing.|
|3||When booking through P2PS pls, you rarely feel informed about the positive and negative aspects of sharing.|
|4||When booking through P2PS pls, the positive and negative aspects of sharing are hardly evident.|
|Perceived Risk (RSK): A consumer’s expectation of negative environmental consequences or negative social impact associated with using a platform.|
|1||There is a risk that P2PS pls promote the negative consequences of sharing.|
|2||There is a risk that negative aspects of sharing occur on P2PS pls.|
|3||There is a risk that negative aspects of sharing are realized through using P2PS pls.|
|4||There is a risk that using P2PS pls drives negative consequences of the sharing economy.|
|Consumer Trust (TRU): A consumer’s willingness to depend on a platform based on the beliefs or expectation resulting from its credibility, benevolence, and ability associated with environmental and social performance.|
|1||I have the impression that the positive reputation of P2PS pls is credible.|
|2||I have faith that the positive aspects of sharing actually exist on P2PS pls.|
|3||I have the impression that the positive claims of P2PS pls are generally trustworthy.|
|4||P2PS pls generally keep their promises regarding their commitment to foster positive aspects of sharing.|
|Descriptives||Composite Reliability||Cronbach’s Alpha||AVE||Correlation Matrix|
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).