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Zonation and Directional Dynamics of Mangrove Forests Derived from Time-Series Satellite Imagery in Mai Po, Hong Kong

1
Institute of Space and Earth Information Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong 999077, China
2
Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518000, China
3
Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
4
Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Wetland and Watershed Research, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China
5
Guangdong Key Lab of Ocean Remote Sensing, State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061913
Received: 8 April 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
Mangrove deforestation is occurring globally at a rapid rate, and is causing serious ecological and economic losses on all scales. Monitoring mangrove changes is the first important step for mangrove management and conservation. Zonation of mangrove species (ZMS) is the predictable and discrete ordering of mangrove species caused by a unique, intertidal environment. Mapping the ZMS is critical to understanding the mangrove community at a species level. In this paper, the Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE) was proposed as a method to evaluate mangrove species from a new dimension of directional changes. Three dominant mangrove species, Kandelia obovata (KO), Avicennia marina (AM), and Acanthus ilicifolius (AI), in Mai Po, Hong Kong were analyzed using SDEs based on the time series Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) and Gaofen-1 (GF-1) satellite images. The SDE results demonstrated that in the past 25 years: (1) The overall spatial extent of the mangroves in Mai Po expanded significantly, approximately from 150 to 350 Ha, and show a zonation pattern with a clear sequence of species perpendicular to the shoreline; (2) KO was the dominant species in most years, showing the strongest directional characteristic; (3) All three species zones have moved toward the north and west, as observed by the SDE centers. The SDE was proved to be a useful tool for understanding the temporal and spatial changes of mangrove zonation. View Full-Text
Keywords: mangroves; zonation; changes; remote sensing mangroves; zonation; changes; remote sensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, M.; Zhang, H.; Lin, G.; Lin, H.; Tang, D. Zonation and Directional Dynamics of Mangrove Forests Derived from Time-Series Satellite Imagery in Mai Po, Hong Kong. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061913

AMA Style

Liu M, Zhang H, Lin G, Lin H, Tang D. Zonation and Directional Dynamics of Mangrove Forests Derived from Time-Series Satellite Imagery in Mai Po, Hong Kong. Sustainability. 2018; 10(6):1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061913

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Mingfeng; Zhang, Hongsheng; Lin, Guanghui; Lin, Hui; Tang, Danling. 2018. "Zonation and Directional Dynamics of Mangrove Forests Derived from Time-Series Satellite Imagery in Mai Po, Hong Kong" Sustainability 10, no. 6: 1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061913

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