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Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061732

The Technological Trajectory of Integrated Pest Management for Rice in Cambodia

1
Sustainable Impact Platform, International Rice Research Institute, IRRI-Cambodia Office, Phnom Penh 12101, Cambodia
2
Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University and Research, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Rice Production, General Directorate of Agriculture, Phnom Penh 12101, Cambodia
4
Department of Administration, Planning, Accounting and International Cooperation, General Directorate of Agriculture, Phnom Penh 12101, Cambodia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract

For the past two decades, while the efficacy of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has been successfully demonstrated in Cambodia, its dissemination and sustained adoption among farmers have not met similar success. This study moves away from simplistic analyses about constraints in extension methods for IPM. Instead, we take a broader look into technological systems and the trajectory for pest management, which affected the spread and uptake of IPM in the country. Through a review of the wider context in policies and programs, and a survey of farmers from five provinces in Cambodia (N = 400), we examined the connections between options for pest management at the farmer level and conditions in the technological system. Using the Cambodian case study, we show that the technological system predisposes to pesticide use and as such hinders a trajectory of IPM. Systemic conditions, including interrelated agronomic practices, ecological conditions in farming communities, governance mechanisms, structures around the spread of knowledge and the industry around the technological options, have created mutual socio-technical dependencies. Although programs targeted change through knowledge of IPM, much of the systemic conditions sustain the trajectory of pesticide reliance. Hence, promoting an innovation environment that is supportive of IPM requires extension beyond knowledge dissemination, addressing these varied elements of the technological system. View Full-Text
Keywords: integrated pest management; technological trajectory; Cambodia; technological systems; policy; extension integrated pest management; technological trajectory; Cambodia; technological systems; policy; extension
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Flor, R.J.; Chhay, K.; Sorn, V.; Maat, H.; Hadi, B.A.R. The Technological Trajectory of Integrated Pest Management for Rice in Cambodia. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1732.

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