Developments in technology have enabled envisioning the derivation of materials and products from renewable biomass as an alternative to finite fossil-based resource consumption. Therefore, bioeconomy is regarded as an opportunity for sustainable economic growth. Countries are formulating strategies in accordance with their goals to attain a bioeconomy. Proper measurement, monitoring, and reporting of the outcomes of these strategies are crucial for long-term success. This study aims to critically evaluate the national methods used for the measurement, monitoring, and reporting of bioeconomy contribution to the total economy. For this purpose, research and surveys have been conducted on selected countries (Argentina, Germany, Malaysia, the Netherlands, South Africa, and the United States). The results reveal that the bioeconomy targets set up in the strategies often reflect the country’s priorities and comparative advantages. However, comprehensive approaches to measure and monitor bioeconomy progress are frequently lacking. Most countries only measure the contribution to gross domestic product (GDP), turnover, and employment of the sectors included in their bioeconomy definition, which may provide an incomplete picture. In addition, this study identifies the mismatch between the targets and measurement methods, as the environmental and social impacts of bioeconomy are often foreseen, but not measured. It is concluded that existing global efforts towards sustainable bioeconomy monitoring can be strengthened and leveraged to measure progress towards sustainable goals.
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