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Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051557

A Cost-Oriented Optimal Model of Electric Vehicle Taxi Systems

College of Transportation Engineering, School of Automotive Studies, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
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Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
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Abstract

This paper presents a cost optimal model of electric vehicle taxi systems based on the cost of electric vehicle taxi companies, charging or battery swap stations, passengers’ time, and emission costs. Considering the requirement of meeting passengers’ travel demands, an electric taxi demand model using transportation elasticity is formulated to optimize the number of electric taxis. The electric taxi demand model constitutes the measure of electric taxis, the cruise range, the amount of charging or battery swap stations, and other related factors. Simultaneously, to meet the charging requirements of electric taxis, a layout optimal model of EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) is designed using a Voronoi polygon method aimed at the cost of charging or battery swap stations and the range cost for changing. Finally, these aforementioned models are mixed to calculate the scale of electric taxis, the allocation of vehicle models, the optimizing level, and the site distribution of charging or battery swap stations. The key findings include the following: (1) the cost of the BEV(battery electric vehicle) taxi system is lower in the charging model than in the battery swap model, (2) the cost of the PHEV taxi system is lower than the BEV taxi system in the charging model, (3) in the Tongzhou District of Beijing, five charging or battery swap stations required being found to meet the charging demands of 5557 BEVs in the charging model or 5316 BEVs in the battery swap model, (4) according to the passengers’ travel demands and traffic conditions in Tongzhou, the BEV’s cruise range ought to be 250 km and BEV’s battery capacity should be 42.5 kW, the price of PHEV should be under 24,000 RMB and the electric-powered cruise range needs to be under 100 km, the daily operating time of EVs is around 16 h and the daily operating range is controlled under 380 km, and (5) a carbon tax is suggested to be imposed on ICEVs but the price should be under 20 RMB per ton. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle taxi; system optimization; layout of EVSE sites; passengers’ travel demands electric vehicle taxi; system optimization; layout of EVSE sites; passengers’ travel demands
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Liu, X.; Wang, N.; Dong, D. A Cost-Oriented Optimal Model of Electric Vehicle Taxi Systems. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1557.

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