Next Article in Journal
Impact of Rural Land Transfer on Land Use Functions in Western China’s Guyuan Based on a Multi-Level Stakeholder Assessment Framework
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of Southern Illinois Water Treatment Residues for Sustainable Applications
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051375

Measuring Public Concerns? Developing a Moral Concerns Scale Regarding Non-Product Related Process and Production Methods

Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Marketing for Food and Agricultural Products, Georg-August-University, Platz der Goettinger Sieben 5, 37073 Goettingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [983 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

In recent years, citizens have been more frequently scrutinizing non-product related process and production methods (npr-PPM) of various products, such as food, out of moral considerations. In 2014, the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Dispute Settlement Body reached a landmark decision and accepted an European Union (EU)-wide import ban of seal products under the justification of Art. XX (a) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) due to “public moral concerns”. However, up to now there has been no valid and reliable scale to quantify moral concerns. Therefore, we developed a tool—the Moral Concerns Scale (MCS)—to measure moral concerns of a society about, for example, animal welfare or child labor in a valid and reliable manner for npr-PPM. This scale was developed and tested in two independent studies with German citizens (in 2016 and 2017) using three case studies: hens laying eggs in battery cages, the inhumane killing of seals, and the use of child labor. According to the results of both studies, the reliability and validity of the developed scale can be confirmed. View Full-Text
Keywords: moral concerns; non-product related process and production methods; animal welfare; child labor; scale development; partial least squares moral concerns; non-product related process and production methods; animal welfare; child labor; scale development; partial least squares
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sonntag, W.I.; Spiller, A. Measuring Public Concerns? Developing a Moral Concerns Scale Regarding Non-Product Related Process and Production Methods. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1375.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top