Assessing Climate Finance Readiness in the Asia-Pacific Region
2. Overview of the Asia-Pacific Region
3. Methods and Results
3.1. Phase 1—Determining a Common Scale
3.2. Phase 2—Determining the Readiness Dimensions & Indicators
3.3. Phase 3—Linking Countries’ Readiness Progress to Climate Finance Accessed
4.1. Rationalizing the Difference in Readiness Progress
4.2. Linking Readiness Progress to Climate Finance Accessed
4.3. Readiness for Bilateral and Remittance Finance—An Alternative
5. Limitation of this Study
Conflicts of Interest
Delays in CC related policies/plans/strategies being endorsed and approved by cabinet.
|Inclusive Decision Makinge|
Minimal engagement/consultations with private sector, civil societies, and communities.
Fragmented institutional settings.
|Weak fiscal policy environment.|
|CC policies/plans/strategies are still being developed or in draft.||Lack of structured systems/processes in place to engage all relevant stakeholders.||Uncertain institutional arrangement due to volatile political environment.||Lack of long term budget projection.|
|Existing CC related polices/plans/strategies are too broad and unclear.||Non-traditional stakeholders no adequately represented in the decision making bodies.||Weak institutional links between central line ministries and other bodies.||Weak of accountability mechanism in place.|
|Existing CC related polices/plans/strategies are out of date.||CC-related materials are not easily accessible by the public.||Over-governance: too many committees with similar roles and responsibilities||Lack of a structured approach to holistically capture and classify CCE in national budgets.|
|Key CC policies/legislations missing.||Coordination|
Inconsistent flow of information amongst key line ministries.
|Lack of clear mandates on roles and responsibilities.||Evidence based decision making|
Lack of reliable, complete, and up to date data.
Lack of technical and specialized knowledge at in line ministries and agencies.
|Critical CC policies/plans/strategies not harmonized and linked.||Existing CC related decision making bodies’ lack leadership and political backing.||Lack of a formal data management system to support evidence-based policy making.|
|Lack of systematic training needs assessment within line ministries and agencies.||Mainstreaming/integrating of climate change into existing strategies/plans/policies is difficult.||Public Finance Management|
No/narrow national definition of climate finance.
|Lack of a formal procedure on data sharing amongst government, donors, and other stakeholders.|
|High staff turn-over.||Lack of a formalized planning process.||Lack of budget support received.||Lack of systematic M & E systems and established indicators at all levels to assess performance of projects.|
|Heavy reliance on international consultants.||Misalignment between CC policies and its allocated resources.||Heavily dependent on single bilateral donor.||Lack of formal data management system to capture and store funding from other sources.|
|Lack of human capacity within key line ministries and agencies.||Lack of coordination amongst central CC line ministries during CC project life cycles.||Weak PFM in place.||Responsibilities of M & E not clear amongst line ministries.|
|Lack of long-term plan and financial commitments to build capacity at all levels.||Lack of awareness across line ministries on CC related issues.||Frequent delays in disbursement of funds through national systems.||Disparate collection/storage of data and monitoring amongst key line ministries and agencies.|
|Lack of knowledge at the community level.||Infrequent & inconsistent meetings of key national CC committees responsible for coordinating CC issues.||Fragmented budgeting structure and process.||Unclear and broad CC related targets being set.|
|Countries||USD (Millions)||Grants (%)||Debt Instrument (%)|
|Lower Bound||Upper Bound||Average|
|Model||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate||Change Statistics|
|R Square Change||F Change||Sig. F Change|
|Model||Sum of Squares||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||t||Sig.|
|Population||3.145 × 10−6||0.000||0.468||1.919||0.091|
|Population||4.002 × 10−6||0.000||0.596||3.112||0.017|
|Bias||Std. Error||Sig. (2-Tailed)||BCa 95% Confidence Interval|
|1||−106.652||72.116 b||139.419 b||0.695 b||0.000 b||0.000 b|
|3.145 × 10−6||3.112 × 10−6 b||6.610 × 10−6 b||0.515 b||−3.435 × 10−6 b||2.611 × 10−5 b|
|−333.058||140.887 b||247.911 b||0.541 b||0.000 b||0.000 b|
|0.352||−0.245 b||0.554 b||0.561 b||−0.587 b||0.762 b|
|2||−349.370||175.477 c||243.379 c||0.421 c||0.000 c||0.000 c|
|4.002 × 10−6||2.968 × 10−6 c||8.797 × 10−6 c||0.353 c||−2.021 × 10−5 c||5.230 × 10−5 c|
|−370.269||159.302 c||244.986 c||0.396 c||0.000 c||0.000 c|
|0.218||−0.197 c||0.623 c||0.601 c||−0.477 c||0.527 c|
|24.492||−10.175c||16.624 c||0.404 c||5.558 c||22.997 c|
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|Readiness Dimension||Proposed Indicator|
|Institutions and Policies|
|Knowledge Management and Learning|
|Fiscal Policy Environment|
|Adjusted R square||0.922||p < 0.05|
|F||33.53||p < 0.001|
|Population||0.596||p < 0.05|
|GDP per capita||−0.271||p < 0.05|
|Governance||0.301||p > 0.05|
|Readiness||0.247||p < 0.05|
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Samuwai, J.; Hills, J.M. Assessing Climate Finance Readiness in the Asia-Pacific Region. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1192. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041192
Samuwai J, Hills JM. Assessing Climate Finance Readiness in the Asia-Pacific Region. Sustainability. 2018; 10(4):1192. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041192Chicago/Turabian Style
Samuwai, Jale, and Jeremy Maxwell Hills. 2018. "Assessing Climate Finance Readiness in the Asia-Pacific Region" Sustainability 10, no. 4: 1192. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041192